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रसूलपुर गांव जो है वह बिहार के छपरा के सारण डिस्ट्रिक्ट में पड़ता है वैसे यह गांव कुछ खास नहीं है मगर फिर भी यह गांव की आस पास जो गांव है उनकी तुलना अगर करें हम तो यह गांव काफी डेवलप्ड है क्योंकि यहां पर शॉपिंग वगैरह के लिए या बिजनेस के दृष्टिकोण से अगर देखा जाए तो काफी अच्छे चांस है ग्रोथ की भी चांसेस काफी अच्छे हैं वैसे बाकी गांव से लोग भी आ करके इस गांव के चौराहे पर अपना दुकान खोल रखे हैं जिसकी वजह से उनके अच्छे खासे बिजनेस चल भी रहे है देखा जाए तो अगर आप भी अपना बिजनेस करना चाहते हैं तो आप यहां पर रसूलपुर में आ करके अपना बिजनेस स्टार्ट कर सकते हैं यहां पर मेन रीजन यह है अपना बिजनेस करने का कि यहां पर आपको काफी अच्छा खासा ट्रैफिक मिल जाएगा आपको अपने प्रोडक्ट सेल करने के लिए काफी अच्छे चांस है कि आप अच्छे तरीके से प्रोडक्ट सेल कर सकते हैं

यहां पर बाकी गांव की बात करें तो वहां पर उतने ट्रैफिक आपको मिलेंगे नहीं जिसकी वजह से आप जो पैसा इन्वेस्ट करेंगे तो उसके चांस कम है कि आपको प्रोडक्ट सेलिंग मिले प्रोडक्ट सेलिंग के लिए कस्टमर ज्यादा मिले मगर अगर आप रसूलपुर गांव में है यहां पर आपको के लिए काफी अच्छी खासी संख्या में आपको मिल जाएगी काफी अच्छा है इस गांव में !!

Arunachal University Of Studies: History, Awards, Affiliations

Arunachal University of Studies (AUS) is a private university located at Namsai.

Arunachal University of Studies is a Self-Sponsored State Skill University of Arunachal Pradesh. The University was established in 2012 by an act of State Legislator. It is the part of prestigious World Education Mission Group. The University is recognized by University Grants Commission (India) UGC u/s 22 of UGC Act 1956 and only NAAC accredited State University of Arunachal Pradesh. As per the statistics published by Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh in 2018, the Arunachal University of Studies in terms of number of students has become the biggest standalone institution of Arunachal Pradesh.

Arunachal University of Studies (AUS)

 

Key Description:


Type: State University Self Sponsored

Established: 2012

Affiliation: UGC, AIU, NAAC BCI, NCTE, RCI, AICTE, PCI, SNC

Chancellor: Kamal Lochan Agrawal

Vice-Chancellor: Prof. O.P.Sharma

Academic Staff: 269

Students: 4300

Location: Knowledge City Namsai, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Campus: Rural (63 acres)

Nickname: AUS

Website: www.arunachaluniversity.ac.in

 

AUS History


Considering the acute need to education in the Eastern Arunachal Pradesh and Upper Part of Assam, The World Education Mission a wholly charitable NGO has established Arunachal University of Studies in Namsai, Arunachal Pradesh. The University has been established by Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh vide the AUS Act 2012 (No. 9 of 2012) and published in extraordinary official gazette of Arunachal Pradesh on dated the May 30th, 2012.

 

Arunachal University of Studies (AUS) Awards


  • AUS Best University in East India 2019 (CEGR)
  • AUS Best Knowledge Creation & Innovation University 2018 ASSOCHAM
  • AUS Best University in Academics -2017 CCLA
  • AUS Best Emerging University in North East -2017 ASSOCHAM

 

Arunachal University of Studies (AUS) Accreditation/Affiliations


  • University Grants Commission (India) (UGC) u/s 22 of UGC Act 1956.
    Only State University of Arunachal Pradesh accredited by National
  • Assessment Accreditation Council (NAAC).
  • Association of Indian Universities (AIU) for equivalence with other
  • National & International Universities.
  • Bar Council of India for Legal Education Courses.
  • National Council for Teacher's Education (NCTE) for Teacher Education Courses.
  • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI) for conducting Special Education Courses.
  • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) for conducting Pharmacy Courses.
  • Directorate of Medical Education, Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh (DME) for Paramedical Courses.
  • NOC from Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for Agriculture Courses.
  • NOC from All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) for Technical Courses.

 

Arunachal University of Studies (AUS) Faculty & Directorate


  • Faculty of Agriculture Sciences
  • Faculty of Medical Science
  • Faculty of Science
  • Faculty of Engineering and Technology
  • Faculty of Library & Information Science
  • Faculty of Education, Special Education & Sports
  • Faculty of Legal Studies
  • Faculty of Commerce, Management & Hospitality Management
  • Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences
  • Faculty of Skill Development & Vocational Studies
  • Navsrijan – Directorate of Discontinued Education
  • University- Industry-Inter-Linkage Centre
  • Directorate of Distance Education

 

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Varun Gandhi: Political Career, Life And Education, Writings

Varun Gandhi (born 13 March 1980) is an Indian politician, and a third-term member of Parliament for Lok Sabha from the Pilibhit constituency. He is also member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and was inducted into Rajnath Singh's team in March 2012 as General Secretary. He hails from the Nehru-Gandhi family, which has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India since the country's independence in 1947.

varun gandhi political career
Varun Gandhi

 

Key Description:


Member of Parliament: Lok Sabha 23 May 2019

Preceded By: Maneka Gandhi

Constituency: Pilibhit (16 May 2014 – 23 May 2019)

Preceded By: Sanjay Sinh

Succeeded By: Maneka Gandhi

Constituency: Sultanpur (2009–2014)

Preceded By: Maneka Gandhi

Succeeded By: Maneka Gandhi

Constituency: Pilibhit

National General Secretary:  Bharatiya Janata Party (19 June 2013)

President:

Personal Details

  • Born: Varun Gandhi 13 March 1980 (age 40), New Delhi, India
  • Political Party: Bharatiya Janata Party
  • Spouse(s): Yamini Gandhi ​(m. 2011)​
  • Relations: Nehru–Gandhi family
  • Children: 1
  • Mother: Maneka Gandhi
  • Father: Sanjay Gandhi
  • Residence: New Delhi, India

Education: University of London

Website: https://ferozevarungandhi.in

Social Network: Twitter, Facebook

 

Varun Gandhi Personal Life And Education


Varun Gandhi was born in Delhi on 13 March 1980 to Sanjay Gandhi and Maneka Gandhi. He is the grandson of former Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi and the great-grandson of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Varun was born soon after Indira Gandhi regained power in the 1980 general elections. Sanjay Gandhi died in a plane crash when Varun was three months old in June 1980. Indira was assassinated when Varun was four years old on 31 October 1984. Varun attended Rishi Valley School and Modern School C.P. New Delhi and the British School, New Delhi, where he ran for a position on the student council.

 

Varun Gandhi Political Career


Varun Gandhi was first introduced to the Pilibhit constituency by his mother during the 1999 election campaigning. Maneka had been a part of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) since earlier but she and Varun formally joined BJP in 2004. Varun Gandhi campaigned for the party in the 2004 elections, covering over 40 constituencies.

In an interview to Stephen Sackur in BBC's HARDTALK in October 2005, Gandhi answered questions about the reasons behind his political affiliation and defended his father as someone who had helped revive the industrialisation of India by starting Maruti Udyog and whose strategy helped the Congress party's comeback after the first ever non-Congress Janata Party government following an electoral routing for the Indira Gandhi-government after Emergency, among many other things.

Varun Gandhi As a Member of Parliament

In the 2009 general election, the BJP decided to field Varun Gandhi as its candidate from the Pilibhit constituency instead of his mother Maneka Gandhi. He won the seat by receiving 419,539 votes and defeated his nearest contending candidate, V.M. Singh, by a margin of 281,501 votes. The victory was the strongest of any of the four Gandhi family candidates in the election: his mother Maneka Gandhi, aunt Sonia Gandhi and first cousin Rahul Gandhi. The security deposits of all other candidates, including those of V.M. Singh of the Indian National Congress and the Bahujan Samaj Party candidate Ganga Charan Rajput were forfeited. A case was filed against Gandhi for allegedly making a provocative speech about Muslims, at a meeting at Dalchand Mohalla area of Pilibhit, however he was acquitted by in court in the matter. On 5 March 2013, a Pilibhit court acquitted Gandhi in the second hate speech case registered against him during the 2009 Lok Sabha election campaign.

In March 2013, Rajnath Singh appointed Varun Gandhi as the national general secretary of the BJP. He became the youngest ever general secretary of the party. In May 2013, Varun Gandhi was made in-charge of the BJP's affairs in West Bengal. In June 2013, Gandhi requested Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar to call an emergency all party meeting in view of the calamity in Uttarakhand in which thousands of people had died. He suggested a number of step like contribution from MPLADs fund, forgoing of three months salary by MPs and tax incentives for corporate and individuals for help. He has said that he spoke to many MPs and all of them were ready to contribute. He said that the Speaker should act as a catalyst and coordinate the action plan.

In July 2013, Gandhi handed over a cheque of Rs 1 lakh from his salary account to family members of former Jan Sangh Member of Legislative Assembly late Bhagwati Prasad, who died at a government hospital after prolonged illness and age-related complications. The former MLA had to spend over an hour on the floor of an emergency ward before doctors at the hospital realized he was an ex-MLA and was subsequently given medical attention. His family didn't even have money to perform the last rites after his death. Varun said he came to know about Prasad only after his death. Describing the late MLA as a model of honesty, he said it was hard to find an honest leader like him.

In August 2013, newspapers reported that Gandhi was the only MP in the country who had spent all of his MP Local Area Development Fund (MPLAD) before stipulated time. According to official sources, Varun Gandhi used his funds for the development in education, health and infrastructure activities. His proposals were worth more than the entire MPLAD fund thus ensuring the entire amount of 25 crore was spent during his tenure as a Member of Parliament. His political aides stated that he submitted the proposals on time and also employed his personal team to monitor the use of money.

In September 2013, Varun Gandhi accused the Samajwadi Party-led Uttar Pradesh government of pursuing the politics of appeasement, and said that its mistakes would lead to its collapse, after it denied permission to Varun Gandhi's rally in Agra just two days before it was scheduled to take place.

He denounced Rahul Gandhi's infamous outburst against the controversial ordinance against convicted lawmakers, and said that it was an insult to the Prime Minister, who was abroad at the time, and therefore also disgraceful to the nation. He also said that if the Prime Minister had any dignity left, he should resign immediately upon his return to the country, on the day of Rahul Gandhi's outburst. In March 2014, he said that he holds no ill-will against Rahul Gandhi and won't campaign against him during Lok Sabha Election.

In February 2014, Gandhi kickstarted his campaign for election 2014 in Sultanpur. He gave an emotional speech to an enthusiastic crowd in Kadipur, and said that he had come to Sultanpur to fulfill his father's dreams.

In May 2014, Gandhi defeated Amita Singh from Sultanpur in Lok Sabha 2014 elections.

In March 2016, he introduced the Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2016 in Lok Sabha.

He contested from Pilibhit lok sabha constituency in 2019 general elections and won with approx 2,50,000 votes to become an MP for the third time in a row.

Varun Gandhi On Jan Lokpal Bill


In August 2011, Varun Gandhi strongly pitched for the Jan Lokpal Bill. Gandhi offered his official residence to activist Anna Hazare to hold his fast, after Hazare was denied permission by the government. When Hazare was jailed, Gandhi offered to table the Jan Lokpal Bill in Parliament. On 24 August, he went to Ramlila Maidan as a common man to support the cause of Anna Hazare, becoming the first politician to openly support the anti-corruption cause.

Columnist


Gandhi writes articles and policy papers for several national dailies and magazines in India, such as The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Economic Times, The Indian Express, The Asian Age, The Hindu, Outlook among others. Gandhi writes the largest syndicated column in the country covering 21 newspapers – including Malayala Manorama, Lokmat, Rajasthan Patrika, Punjab Kesari, Amar Ujala, Sandesh, Bartaman, Sakshi – reaching more than 200 million readers.

 

Varun Gandhi Writings


Gandhi wrote his first volume of poems, titled The Otherness of Self, at the age of 20, in 2000. His second volume of poems, titled Stillness was published by HarperCollins in April 2015. The book became the bestselling non-fiction book, selling over 10,000 copies in the first two days of its release.

In 2018, he released his book on the Indian rural economy titled The Rural Manifesto: Realizing India's Future through her Villages. The book sold over 30,000 copies in ten days of its release.

Maneka Gandhi: Biography, Personal Life, Political Career

Maneka Sanjay Gandhi was born 26 August 1956) is an Indian politician, animal rights activist, and environmentalist. She is a member of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). She is the widow of Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi. She has been a minister in four governments, most recently in Narendra Modi's government from May 2014 to May 2019. Gandhi authored a number of books in the areas of etymology, law and animal welfare.

Maneka Gandhi Biography
Maneka Gandhi

 

Key Description:


Minister: Women and Child Development (26 May 2014 – 24 May 2019 )

Prime Minister: Narendra Modi

Preceded By: Krishna Tirath

Succeeded By: Smriti Irani

Member of Parliament: 23 May 2019

Preceded By: Varun Gandhi

Constituency: Sultanpur (2014–2019)

Preceded By: Varun Gandhi

Succeeded By: Varun Gandhi

Constituency: Pilibhit (2009–2014)

Preceded By: Sarvraj Singh

Succeeded By: Dharmendra Kashyap

Constituency: Aonla (1996–2009)

Preceded By: Parshuram Gangwar

Succeeded By: Varun Gandhi

Constituency: Pilibhit (1989–1991)

Preceded By: Bhanu Pratap Singh

Succeeded By: Parshuram Gangwar

Constituency: Pilibhit

Minister of State for Programme Implementation and Statistics (Independent Charge)

18 November 2001 – 30 June 2002

Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Minister of State for Culture (Independent Charge) 1 September 2001 – 18 November 2001

Prime Minister: Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment (13 October 1999 – 1 September 2001)

Prime Minister: Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Personal Details

Born: Maneka Anand, 26 August 1956 (age 64), New Delhi, India

Political Party: Bharatiya Janata Party

Other Political: Affiliations Janata Dal(1988-1998) Independent (1998-2004)

Spouse(s): Sanjay Gandhi ​(m. 1974; died 1980)​

Children: Varun Gandhi

Occupation: Politician, animal-rights activist (As of 27 May, 2014)

Source: Government of India

Social Network: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram

 

Maneka Gandhi Personal Life


Maneka Anand was born on 26 August 1956 in Delhi, India into a Sikh family. Her father was Indian Army officer Lt. Col. Tarlochan Singh Anand and her mother was Amteshwar Anand. She went to Lawrence School and later Lady Shri Ram College for Women. She subsequently studied German at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Maneka first met Sanjay Gandhi in 1973 at a cocktail party thrown by her uncle, Major-General Kapur, to celebrate the forthcoming marriage of his son. Maneka married Gandhi, the son of the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, one year later on 23 September 1974.

The Emergency of 1975-77 saw the rise of Sanjay into politics and Maneka was seen with him almost every time on his tours as she helped him in campaigns. It is often said that during the Emergency, Sanjay had total control over his mother (Indira) and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office).

Maneka Gandhi founded the news magazine Surya which later played a key role in promotion of the Congress party after its defeat in the 1977 election following the Emergency.

Gandhi went to court to fight an attempt by the government in power at the time to confiscate her passport and won a landmark decision on personal liberty. In the case of Maneka Gandhi v Union of India, the court found that "Democracy is based essentially on free debate and open discussion, for that is the only corrective of government action in a democratic setup."

In 1980 Gandhi gave birth to a son, Feroze, named after his paternal grandfather. Her mother-in-law added the name Varun. Gandhi was just twenty-three years old, and her son just 100 days old, when her husband died in an air crash.

 

Maneka Gandhi Early Life And Career


Maneka's relationship with Indira Gandhi gradually disintegrated after Sanjay's death and they would continually argue with one another. Maneka was eventually forced out of 1, Safdarjung Road, the prime minister's residence, after a fallout with Indira. She founded the Rashtriya Sanjay Manch along with Akbar Ahmad. The party primarily focused on youth empowerment and employment. It won four out of five seats in the Elections in Andhra Pradesh.

Gandhi published The Complete Book of Muslim and Parsi Names, in recognition of her husband's Zoroastrian faith.

She later published The Book of Hindu Names (Penguin).

Gandhi contested the Amethi constituency from Uttar Pradesh for the 1984 general election for the Lok Sabha, but lost to Rajiv Gandhi. In 1988, she joined V.P. Singh's Janata Dal Party and became the General Secretary. In the November 1989 Indian general election Gandhi won her first election to Parliament and became a Minister of State as the Minister for Environment.

 

Maneka Gandhi Activism


Gandhi is a self-described environmentalist and animal rights leader in India. She has earned international awards and acclaim. She was appointed chairwoman of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) in 1995. Under her direction, CPCSEA members carried unannounced inspections of laboratories where animals are used for scientific research were conducted.

Gandhi has filed Public Interest Litigations that have achieved the replacement of the municipal killing of homeless dogs with a sterilisation programme, the unregulated sale of airguns and a ban on mobile or travelling zoos. She currently chairs the Jury of International Energy Globe Foundation which meets annually in Austria to award the best environmental innovations of the year. She is a member of the Eurosolar Board and the Wuppertal Institute, Germany.

Gandhi started the organisation People for Animals in 1992 and it is the largest organisation for animal rights/welfare in India. Gandhi is also a patron of International Animal Rescue. While she is not a vegan, she has advocated this lifestyle on ethical and health grounds. She also anchored the weekly television program Heads and Tails, highlighting the suffering meted out to animals due to their commercial exploitation. She has also authored a book under the same title. Her other books were about Indian people names. She is a cast member for the documentary A Delicate Balance.

 

Maneka Gandhi Criticism


Gandhi has often been criticized for her comments. In June 2017, during a Facebook Live session, she commented that men do not commit suicide. She received negative responses to the comment and spent the rest of the chat answering questions related to this, with chatters pointing out that 68% of the suicide cases reported in India were committed by men. In March 2017, she said that an early curfew for girls in hostels helped young women control their "hormonal outbursts" and received a backlash for the comment.

Alleged Spread of hatred against muslims

Police in Kerala booked Maneka on the basis of complaints against her for promoting hatred by leveling accusations coated with communal overtones for a death of a pregnant elephant, against residents in the Muslim-majority district of Malappuram on June 2020. While the elephant died in Mannarcad, Palakkad district, nearly 90 km from Malappuram, BJP leaders including Maneka targeted the only Muslim-majority district of Kerala. She said: “It’s a murder. Malappuram is famous for such incidents, it’s India’s most violent district. For instance, they throw poison on roads so that 300-400 birds & dogs die at one time”. The incident was used by many right-wingers to proliferate anti-Muslim resentment and to demonize the community. A multitude of hateful messages toward Malappuram and his people accompanied her remarks, triggering enraged responses. She was charged with adding communal color to an animal-related issue that would otherwise be constrained within the Department of Forests. A group calling themselves Kerala Cyber Warriors briefly hacked Maneka Gandhi's website, People for Animals, India.

Maneka Gandhi Electoral History


1984 - Lost to Rajiv Gandhi from Amethi (Lok Sabha constituency) over 2.7L votes, was contesting as an Independent Candidate

1989-91 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Janata Dal party ticket

1991 - Lost as Janata Dal candidate to BJP's Parashuram in Pilibhit

1996-98 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Janata Dal party ticket

1998-99 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected as an Independent Candidate

1999-2004 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected as an Independent Candidate

2004-09 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket

2009-14 - Member of Lok Sabha from Aonla (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket

2014-19 - Member of Lok Sabha from Pilibhit (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket

2019–present - Member of Lok Sabha from Sultanpur (Lok Sabha constituency), elected on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket.

 

Maneka Gandhi Positions Held In Govt.


  • 1988–89 – General-Secretary, Janata Dal (J.D.)
  • 1989–91 – Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Environment and Forests
  • January–April 1990 – Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Programme Implementation
  • 1996–97 – Member, Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Forests
  • 1998–99 – Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • 13 October 1999 – 1 September 2001– Union Minister of State, Social Justice and Empowerment (Independent Charge)
  • 1 September 2001 – 18 November 2001 – Union Minister of State, Culture with additional charge of Animal Care (Independent Charge)
  • Programme Implementation and Statistics with added charge of Animal Care (Independent Charge)
  • 18 November 2001 – 30 June 2002 – Union Minister of State, Programme Implementation and Statistics with additional charge of Animal Care (Independent Charge)
  • 2002–2004 – Member, Committee on External Affairs
  • 2004 – Member, Committee on Health & Family Welfare, Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forests
  • 5 August 2007 – onwards Member, Committee on Health & Family Welfare
  • 31 August 2009 – Became Member of Committee on Railways
  • 23 September 2009 – Chairperson, Committee on Government Assurances
  • 19 October 2009 – Member, General Purposes Committee
  • 26 May 2014 – Union Minister of Women & Child Development
    Awards
  • Shining World Compassion Award along with a cheque for 20,000 dollars from Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association.[29]
  • Lord Erskine Award from the RSPCA, 1992
  • Environmentalist and Vegetarian of the year 1994
  • Prani Mitra Award, 1996
  • Maharana Mewar Foundation Award, 1996 for Environmental work
  • Marchig Animal Welfare and selling Prize, Switzerland, 1997
  • Venu Menon Animal Allies Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award, 1999
  • Bhagwan Mahaveer Foundation Award for Excellence in the sphere of Truth, Non-violence and Vegetarianism, 1999
  • Dewaliben Charitable Trust Award, 1999
  • International Women's Association Woman of the Year Award, Chennai, 2001
  • Dinanath Mangeshkar Aadishakti Puraskar in the field of Environment and animal welfare, 2001
  • Rukmini Devi Arundale Animal Welfare Award
  • A.S.G. Jayakar award, 2008
  • Human Achiever Award in field of Women Empowerment and Children Welfare by Mrs Caroline W/O Ambassador Of Namibia and Ms Sanorita Issac, founder & Chairperson, Human Achiever Foundation, India.

Maneka Gandhi Books


  • 1000 animal quiz, Calcutta : Rupa and Co., 1989, 201 p.
  • Brahma's hair : the mythology of Indian plants, Calcutta : Rupa and Co., 1991, 175 p. With Yasmin Singh.
  • The Penguin book of Hindu names, London : Penguin Books ; New Delhi : Penguin Books India, 1992, 522 p. Latest edition in 2008.
  • Dogs, dogs, dogs, New Delhi : Rupa & Co., 1994, 261 p. With Ozair Husain. Latest edition in 2004.
  • The complete book of Muslim and Parsi names, New Delhi : Indus, 1994, 522 p. With Ozair Husain.
  • Heads and tails, Mapusa, Goa, India : Other India Press, 1994, 182 p. On animal rights and animal rights.
  • The rainbow and other stories, New Delhi : Puffin Books, 1999, 67 p. Children's short stories.
  • The Penguin book of Hindu names for boys, New Delhi : Penguin Books, 2004, 429 p.
  • The Penguin book of Hindu names for girls, New York : Penguin Books, 2004, 151 p.
  • The Rupa book of animal quiz, Rupa & Co., 2004, 201 p.
  • Animal laws of India, New Delhi, India : Universal Law Publishing, 2016, 1649 p. With Ozair Husain and Raj Panjwani.
  • Sanjay Gandhi, New Delhi : Prestige Publishers, 2017, 244 p. With Himani Bhatia Narula.
  • There's a monster under my bed! : and other terrible terrors, Gurgaon : Puffin Books, 2019, 54 p. Children's short stories. Illustrations by Snigdha Rao.

Sanjay Gandhi: Biography, Life And Education, Controversy

Sanjay Gandhi (14 December 1946 – 23 June 1980) was an Indian politician and the son of Indira Gandhi. He was a member of the Nehru–Gandhi family. During his lifetime he was widely expected to succeed his mother as head of the Indian National Congress, but following his early death in a plane crash his elder brother Rajiv became their mother's political heir, and succeeded her as Prime Minister of India after her assassination. His wife Maneka Gandhi and son Varun Gandhi are leading politicians in the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Sanjay Gandhi and Menka Gandhi
Sanjay Gandhi and Menka Gandhi

 

Key Description:


Member of Parliament: Lok Sabha (18 January 1980 – 23 June 1980)

Preceded By: Ravindra Pratap Singh

Succeeded By: Rajiv Gandhi

Constituency: Amethi, Uttar Pradesh

Personal details

Born: 14 December 1946, New Delhi, British India

Died: 23 June 1980 (aged 33), New Delhi, India

Cause of Death: Aircraft accident

Political Party: Indian National Congress

Spouse(s): Maneka Gandhi ​(m. 1974)​

Relations: Nehru–Gandhi family

Children: Varun Gandhi

Parents:

 

Early Life And Education


Sanjay was born in New Delhi, on 14 December 1946, as the younger son of Indira Gandhi and Feroze Gandhi. Like his elder brother Rajiv Gandhi, Sanjay was educated at St. Columba's School, Delhi, Welham Boys' School, Dehra Dun and then at the Doon School, Dehra Dun. Sanjay was also educated at the Ecole D'Humanité, an international boarding school in Switzerland. Sanjay did not attend university, but took up automotive engineering as a career and underwent an apprenticeship with Rolls-Royce in Crewe, England for three years. He was very interested in sports cars, and also obtained a pilot's licence in 1976. He was interested in aircraft acrobatics and won several prizes in that sport. His elder brother Rajiv Gandhi was however a Captain in Indian Airlines flying the Boeing 737-200ADV aircraft. Sanjay was also close to his mother.

 

Sanjay Gandhi Maruti Limited Controversy


In 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's Cabinet proposed the production of a "People's car": an efficient indigenous car that middle-class Indians could afford. In June 1971, a company known as Maruti Motors Limited was incorporated under the Companies Act and Sanjay Gandhi became its Managing Director. While Sanjay had no previous experience, design proposals or links with any corporation, he was awarded the contract to build the car and the exclusive production licence. The criticism that followed this decision was mostly directed at Indira, but the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and victory over Pakistan muted the critical voices. The company did not produce any vehicles during his lifetime. A test model put out as a showpiece to demonstrate progress was criticized. Public perception turned against Sanjay, and many began to speculate growing corruption. Sanjay then contacted Volkswagen AG from West Germany for a possible collaboration, transfer of technology and joint production of the Indian version of the "People's Car", to emulate Volkswagen's worldwide success with the Beetle. During the Emergency, Sanjay became active in politics and the Maruti project went on a back burner. There were accusations of nepotism and corruption. Finally, the Janata Government came to power in 1977 and "Maruti Limited" was liquidated. A commission was set up by the new government headed by Justice Alak Chandra Gupta which gave very critical report of the Maruti affair. A year after his death in 1980, and at the behest of Indira, the Union government salvaged Maruti Limited and started looking for an active collaborator for a new company. Maruti Udyog Ltd. was incorporated in the same year through the efforts of Nehru Gandhi family friend and industrial doyen V. Krishnamurthy. The Japanese company Suzuki was also contacted to present the design and feasibility of their car to be manufactured in India. When Suzuki learned that the Government of India had contacted Volkswagen as well, it did everything to pip the German company in the race to produce India's first People's Car (Maruti 800). It provided the government a feasible Design of their 'Model 796', which was also successful in Japan and East Asian countries.

 

Sanjay Gandhi Role During Emergency


In 1974, the opposition-led protests and strikes had caused a widespread disturbance in many parts of the country and badly affected the government and the economy. On 25 June 1975 following an adverse court decision against her, Indira Gandhi declared a national emergency, delayed elections, censored the press and suspended some constitutional freedoms in the name of national security. Non-Congress governments throughout the country were dismissed. Thousands of people, including several freedom fighters like Jaya Prakash Narayan and Jivatram Kripalani who were against the Emergency were arrested.

In the extremely hostile political environment just before and soon after the Emergency, Sanjay Gandhi rose in importance as Indira's adviser. With the defections of former loyalists, Sanjay's influence with Indira and the government increased dramatically, although he was never in an official or elected position. According to Mark Tully, "His inexperience did not stop him from using the Draconian powers his mother, Indira Gandhi, had taken to terrorise the administration, setting up what was in effect a police state."

It was said that during the Emergency, he virtually ran India along with his friends, especially Bansi Lal. It was also quipped that Sanjay Gandhi had total control over his mother and that the government was run by the PMH (Prime Minister House) rather than the PMO (Prime Minister Office). He "recruited into the party thousands of younger people, many of them hooligans and ruffians, who used threats and force to intimidate rivals and those who opposed Mrs Gandhi's authority or his own.

During the emergency, Indira Gandhi declared a 20-point economic programme for development. Sanjay also declared his own much shorter five points program promoting

  • Literacy
  • Family planning
  • Tree Planting
  • Eradication of Casteism
  • Abolition of dowry

Later during the emergency Sanjay's programme was merged with Indira's 20-point programme to make a combined twenty-five point programme.

Out of the five points, Sanjay is now chiefly remembered for the family planning initiative that attracted much notoriety and caused longterm harm to population control in India.

Involvement in politics and government

Although he had not been elected and held no office, Sanjay began exercising his new-found influence with Cabinet ministers, high-level government officials and police officers. While many Cabinet ministers and officials resigned in protest, Sanjay reportedly appointed their successors.

In one famous example, Inder Kumar Gujral resigned from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting when Sanjay attempted to direct the affairs of his ministry and give him orders. Gujral is reported to have angrily rebuked Sanjay and refused to take orders from an unelected person. Gujral was replaced by Vidya Charan Shukla, a Sanjay Gandhi acolyte. In another incident, after popular Bollywood singer Kishore Kumar refused to sing at a function of the Indian Youth Congress, his songs were banned on All India Radio upon Gandhi's insistence.

Sanjay stood for his first election to the Indian parliament following the lifting of the Emergency in March 1977. This election saw the crushing defeat of not only Sanjay in his constituency of Amethi but also the wiping out of Indira's Congress party throughout Northern India. However, Sanjay won Amethi for the Congress(I) in the next general election held in January 1980.

Just one month before his death, he was appointed secretary general of the Congress Party in May 1980.

Jama Masjid beautification and slum demolition

Sanjay Gandhi and Brij Vardhan, accompanied by Jagmohan the vice-chairman of Delhi Development Authority (DDA), was reportedly irked during his visit to Turkman Gate in old Delhi area that he couldn't see the grand old Jama Masjid because of the maze of tenements. On 13 April 1976, the DDA team bulldozed the tenements. Police resorted to firing to quell the demonstrations opposing the destruction. The firing resulted in at least 150 deaths. Over 70,000 people were displaced during this episode. The displaced inhabitants were moved to a new undeveloped housing site across the Yamuna river.

Compulsory Sterilization Program

In September 1976, Sanjay Gandhi initiated a widespread compulsory sterilization program to limit population growth. The exact extent of Sanjay Gandhi's role in the implementation of the program is somewhat disputed, with some writers holding Gandhi directly responsible for his authoritarianism, and other writers blaming the officials who implemented the program rather than Gandhi himself.

David Frum and Vinod Mehta state that the sterilization programmes were initiated at the behest of the IMF and the World Bank:
"Forced sterilization was by far the most calamitous exercise undertaken during the Emergency. The IMF and World Bank had periodically shared their fears with New Delhi about the uncontrolled rise in population levels. India’s democracy was a hurdle: no government could possibly enact laws limiting the number of children a couple could have without incurring punishment at the ballot box. But with democracy suspended, the IMF and World Bank encouraged Indira to pursue the programme with renewed vigour. Indira and Sanjay, the self-styled socialists, inflicting on Indians the humiliation of forced sterilisation in order to appease western loan sharks: the irony was lost on them. Socialism, like much else, had been reduced to a slogan."

— David Frum, reviewing The Sanjay Story by Vinod Mehta
Attempted assassination

Sanjay Gandhi escaped an assassination attempt in March 1977. Unknown gunmen fired at his car about 300 miles south-east of New Delhi during his election campaign.

 

Sanjay Gandhi Opposition Years (1977-1980)


After losing the 1977 general election, the Congress party split again with Indira Gandhi floating her own Congress(I) faction. She won a by-election from the Chikmagalur Constituency to the Lok Sabha in November 1978 However, the Janata government's Home Minister, Charan Singh, ordered her and Sanjay arrested on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Indira Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament.However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her great sympathy from many people.

1980 Indian Elections

The Congress(I) under Gandhi swept to power in January 1980. Elections soon after to legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties brought back Congress ministries to those states. Sanjay Gandhi at that time selected his own loyalists to head the governments in these states.

Sanjay Gandhi Personal Life Love Story


Sanjay Gandhi married Maneka Anand, who was 10 years his junior, in New Delhi in October 1974. Their son, Varun Gandhi, was born shortly before Sanjay's death. Maneka and Varun Gandhi represent the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the Lok Sabha.

A hitherto unknown chapter of his personal life was revealed in January 2017, when Priya Singh Paul claimed that Sanjay Gandhi was her biological father, and that she was given away by her biological family for adoption. In June 2017, she gave a legal notice in her capacity as his daughter to stop the release of a film on Sanjay Gandhi.

 

Sanjay Gandhi Death 1980


Sanjay Gandhi died instantly from head wounds in an air crash on 23 June 1980 near Safdarjung Airport in New Delhi. He was flying a new aircraft of the Delhi Flying club, and, while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre over his office, lost control and crashed. Sanjay was a novice pilot but given to flashy daredevilry and dangerous low-flying. His elder brother Rajiv Gandhi had repeatedly warned Sanjay to wear proper shoes and not Kolhapuri chappals in the cockpit. Sanjay chose to ignore his advice. He was clad in kurta-pyjama and Kolhapuri chappals when he got into the advanced Pitts S-2A aircraft. He flew low and indulged in some reckless manoeuvres before crashing. Sanjay died instantly. It took eight surgeons four hours to stitch up his mutilated body.

The only passenger in the plane, Captain Subhash Saxena, also died in the crash. WikiLeaks has revealed that three attempts were made on his life before he died in the plane crash.

According to Maneka Gandhi, Sanjay wanted to raise his children in the Zoroastrian faith of his family.

Sanjay's death led his mother to induct her other son Rajiv Gandhi into Indian politics. After the assassination of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv succeeded her as Prime Minister of India. Sanjay's widow Maneka fell out with her in-laws soon after Sanjay's death and started her own party named Sanjay Vichar Manch in Hyderabad. Maneka served in a number of non-Congress opposition-led governments over the years. Currently, she and her son Varun are members of the BJP, which is the current ruling party in India. Maneka was appointed to the cabinet as Minister of Women and Child Development by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in May 2014, she currently represents BJP from Sultanpur (Lok Sabha constituency) in Uttar Pradesh. Varun is a BJP member of Parliament from Pilibhit Constituency in Uttar Pradesh.

 

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Sushant Singh Rajput (SSR): Education, Career, All Films

Sushant Singh Rajput (21 January 1986 – 14 June 2020) was an Indian actor who is best known for his work in Hindi cinema. Rajput started his career with television serials. His debut show was Star Plus's romantic drama Kis Desh Mein Hai Meraa Dil (2008), followed by a starring role in Zee TV's soap opera Pavitra Rishta (2009–2011).

Sushant Singh Rajput Biography
Sushant Singh Rajput

Rajput made his film debut in the buddy drama Kai Po Che! in 2013. He then starred in the romantic comedy Shuddh Desi Romance (2013) and as the titular detective in the action thriller Detective Byomkesh Bakshy! (2015). His highest-grossing releases came with a supporting role in the satire PK (2014), followed by the titular role in the sports biopic M.S. Dhoni: The Untold Story (2016). For his performance in the latter, he received his first nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actor. Rajput went on to act in the commercially successful films Kedarnath (2018) and Chhichhore (2019). His last film, Dil Bechara (2020), was released posthumously on Hotstar.

NITI Aayog, the policy think-tank of the Indian government, signed him to promote the Women Entrepreneurship Platform (WEP). Apart from acting and running a technological startup, Rajput was actively involved in helping young students. He was also the co-founder of an AI and technology company and a charity based company for social work.

Rajput died by suicide at his home in Bandra, Mumbai in June 2020, at age 34.

 

Key Description:


Born: 21 January 1986, Patna, Bihar, India

Died: 14 June 2020 (aged 34) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Cause of Death: Suicide By Hanging

Occupation: Actor

Years Active: 2008–2020

Website: SSR Website

Social Network: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram

 

Sushant Singh Rajput Education


Sushant Singh Rajput was born in Patna in the state of Bihar to Krishna Kumar Singh and Usha Singh. He was the youngest of five siblings and had the nickname of Gulshan. One of his four sisters Mitu Singh would become a state-level cricket player. He attended the St. Karen's High School in Patna. His family moved to Delhi following his mother's death in 2002 where Rajput completed his schooling in Kulachi Hansraj Model School.

Rajput was reportedly an avid reader who was deeply interested in astrophysics and won the National Olympiad in Physics. He secured an admission in the Delhi College of Engineering (later renamed to Delhi Technological University) to pursue a Bachelor of Engineering degree in mechanical engineering. According to Rajput, he did not have any interest in engineering but his family gave him no option which left him dissatisfied. He instead wanted to become an astronaut and later an air force pilot but was also interested in Bollywood, being a fan of Shah Rukh Khan.

 

Sushant Singh Rajput Career


2006–2011: Early career and television

During his course at the Delhi College of Engineering, Rajput enrolled himself in Shiamak Davar's dance classes. Soon afterwards, he also began attending acting classes under the theatre director Barry John.  Rajput later stated that he found the experience to be liberating and wanted to continue doing it forever. He notably featured as a background dancer in the Dhoom Again song of Dhoom 2 and in Ashwariya Rai's performance at the closing ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games. In 2006, he dropped out of his engineering course during his fourth year to begin a career in arts and performance.[26] He moved to Mumbai, took up odd jobs and small roles while working in the theatre industry. In Mumbai, Rajput joined Nadira Babbar's theatre group called the Ekjute in which he remained for two and a half years.

Rajput was spotted by a casting team of Balaji Telefilms while he was working at the Prithvi Theatre. He was subsequently called for an audition and cast as a second lead in the television series Kis Desh Mein Hai Meraa Dil in 2008. He had secured the role of Preet Singh Juneja, the step brother of the lead named Harshad Chopda and entered the show in its seventh episode. The character was killed early in the show, but due to popularity among viewers was brought back in the series finale as a spirit looking on as his family celebrated coming out of difficult times. The performance had made an impression on the producer Ekta Kapoor who vouched for him to be cast as the lead in another series Pavitra Rishta, reportedly against the wishes of the hosting channel, Zee TV.

In Pavitra Rishta, Rajput was cast as Manav Deshmukh who was an "ideal son and husband" and co-starred along with Ankita Lokhande.[36] The role was reportedly a breakthrough for him and for which he won various television awards, including his first award for best actor in the Indian Television Academy Awards 2010. Notably, he won three major television awards in the categories of best male actor and most popular actor. In 2010, he joined the dance reality show Zara Nachke Dikha in its second season as part of the Mast Kalandar Boys team. On the Mother's Day special episode, the team dedicated a performance to Rajput's mother who had died. Later in the same year, he also took part in the fourth season of another dance competition reality show called Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa and was paired alongside the choreographer Shampa Sonthalia; they emerged as the runners up of the season.

Rajput continued to act in Pavitra Rishta from its first airing on 2009 till his exit in 2011, having played the part of the protagonist of the series for two and a half years at the time of his exit. He had stated that he intended to move to the United States to study filmmaking and had already gained experience behind the scenes in the film Raaz 2, where he was an assistant director. Rajput made a later reappearance in the final episode of Pavitra Rishta in 2014 after gaining critical acclaim in Bollywood.

 

Sushant Singh Rajput Personal Life


Rajput was in a publicised relationship with his Pavitra Rishta co-star Ankita Lokhande for six years. They broke up in 2016.

Rajput loved astronomy and astrophysics, and purchased a Meade LX-600 16" telescope, placing it in a window of his house to observe the rings of Saturn. In preparation for his role as an astronaut in Chanda Mama Door Ke, he was given the opportunity to train at NASA. He intended to go back and complete the certificate of instructor training, aspiring to be chosen for the 2024 Artemis program. In 2017, he funded the trip for two students to the US Space Camp Center, under his education programme called Sushant4Education.

On 16 July 2020, more than a month after Rajput's death, Rhea Chakraborty identified herself on social media as his girlfriend. On 26 August, the Narcotics Control Bureau, India's national drug law enforcement agency, registered a first information report (FIR) against Chakraborty and four others after the Enforcement Directorate, India's national economic law enforcement intelligence agency, found that drugs had been supplied to Chakraborty and Rajput. Specifically, the FIR invoked sections of India's Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act dealing with cannabis.

 

SSR Death Reason


On 14 June 2020, Rajput, aged 34, was found dead, hanging from the ceiling fan in his home in Bandra, Mumbai. He had reportedly been suffering from depression. The Mumbai Police commenced an investigation, stating that the death was being treated as a suicide. The postmortem report stated that the cause of death was "asphyxia due to hanging," and called it a "clear case of suicide." The autopsy doctors placed time of death at 10 to 12 hours before postmortem examination on 14 June at 11:30 p.m.—meaning between 11:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. (Indian Standard Time). No foul play was found. The viscera report likewise ruled out foul play. On 25 July, Rajput's family lodged a first information report with police in Patna, where his father lives, accusing Rhea Chakraborty and five others of abetment of suicide.

On 19 August 2020, the Supreme Court of India allowed the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), the Indian national government's top investigating agency, to take control of the investigation and ordered the CBI to look into any future cases registered in relation to Rajput's death. The CBI was later joined by the Enforcement Directorate and the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) to investigate the money laundering and drug peddling angles respectively.

On 8 September, Rhea Chakraborty was arrested by the NCB in a drug case linked to the investigation of the death probe. Prior to the arrest, 9 others were arrested by the NCB in the drug case including Rhea's brother, Showik Chakraborty.

 

Sushant Singh Rajput List of Films

Year Title Role
2013 Kai Po Che! Ishaan Bhatt
Shuddh Desi Romance Raghu Ram
2014 PK Sarfaraz Yousuf
2015 Detective Byomkesh Bakshy! Detective Byomkesh Bakshy
2016 M.S. Dhoni: The Untold Story Mahendra Singh Dhoni
2017 Raabta Jilaan/Shiv Kakkar
2018 Welcome to New York Himself
Kedarnath Mansoor Khan
2019 Sonchiriya Lakhan "Lakhna" Singh
Chhichhore Aniruddh "Anni" Pathak
Drive Samar
2020 Dil Bechara Manny

 

Sushant on Television

Year Title Role
2008–2009 Kis Desh Mein Hai Meraa Dil Preet Juneja
2009–2011 Pavitra Rishta Manav Deshmukh
2010 Zara Nachke Dikha Contestant
2010–2011 Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa 4 Contestant
2015 CID Byomkesh Bakshy

 

SSR Music videos

Year Song
2017 "Paas Aao"

 

Sushant Singh Rajput Awards And Nominations

Year Award Category Film or Series Result
2009 Indian Telly Awards Most Popular Actor (Male) Pavitra Rishta Nominated
2010 Indian Television Academy Awards Most Popular Actor (Male) Won
BIG Star Entertainment Awards Best Television Actor (Male) Won
Gold Awards Best Actor in a Lead Role Won
2011 Won
FICCI Frames Excellence Honours Best TV Actor (Male) Won
2014 Producers Guild Film Awards Best Male Debut Kai Po Che! Won
Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated
Screen Awards Best Male Debut Won
Zee Cine Awards Best Male Debut Nominated
IIFA Awards Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated
Filmfare Awards Best Debut Actor Nominated
2016 Screen Awards Best Actor (Critics) M.S Dhoni: The Untold Story Won
2017 Filmfare Awards Best Actor Nominated
Zee Cine Awards Best Actor – Male Nominated
Stardust Awards Best Actor Nominated
International Indian Film Academy Awards Best Actor (Male) Nominated
Indian Film Festival of Melbourne Best Actor Won

 

Indira Gandhi: Biography, Education, Political Career, Death

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and, to date, only female Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. She served as prime minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father.

Indira Gandhi Biography
Indira Gandhi

During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. She was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. In the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966 (upon the death of Shastri), she defeated her rival Morarji Desai to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India.

As prime minister, Gandhi was known for her political intransigence and unprecedented centralization of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement and war of independence in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the sole regional power of South Asia. Citing separatist tendencies, and in response to a call for revolution, Gandhi instituted a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 where basic civil liberties were suspended and the press was censored. Widespread atrocities were carried out during the emergency. In 1980, she returned to power after free and fair elections. After Gandhi ordered military action in the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star, her own bodyguards and Sikh nationalists assassinated her on 31 October 1984.

In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. In 2020 Gandhi was named by the Time magazine among world's 100 powerful women who defined the last century.

 

Key Description:


3rd Prime Minister of India: (14 January 1980 – 31 October 1984)

President N. Sanjiva Reddy, Zail Singh

Preceded By: Charan Singh

Succeeded By: Rajiv Gandhi (24 January 1966 – 24 March 1977)

President:

  • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
  • Zakir Husain
  • V. V. Giri
  • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

Minister of External Affairs: 9 March 1984 – 31 October 1984

Preceded By: P. V. Narasimha Rao

Succeeded By: Rajiv Gandhi (22 August 1967 – 14 March 1969)

Preceded By: M. C. Chagla

Succeeded By: Dinesh Singh

Minister of Defense: 14 January 1980 – 15 January 1982

Minister of Home Affairs: 27 June 1970 – 4 February 1973

Minister of Finance: 17 July 1969 – 27 June 1970

Minister of Information and Broadcasting: 9 June 1964 – 24 January 1966
Prime Minister: Lal Bahadur Shastri

Preceded By: Satya Narayan Sinha

Succeeded By: Kodardas Kalidas Shah

Personal details

Full Name: Indira Priyadarshini Nehru

Born: 19 November 1917, Allahabad, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India (present-day Prayagraj, India)

Died: 31 October 1984 (aged 66) New Delhi, India

Cause of Death: Assassination

Political Party: Indian National Congress

Spouse(s): Feroze Gandhi (m. 1942; died 1960)​

Relations: Nehru–Gandhi family

Children:

Parents:

  • Jawaharlal Nehru (father)
  • Kamala Nehru (mother)

Education:

  • Visva-Bharati University (dropped out)
  • Somerville College, Oxford (dropped out)

Awards:

  • Bharat Ratna (1971)
  • Bangladesh Freedom Honour (2011)

More: INC

 

Indira Gandhi Early Life And Career


Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in India's political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Dominion (and later Republic) of India. She was the only child (a younger brother died young), and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad. She had a lonely and unhappy childhood. Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bedridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis. She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters.

Indira was taught mostly at home by tutors and attended school intermittently until matriculation in 1934. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad, the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai. She and her mother Kamala moved to the Belur Math headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission where Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian. She went on to study at the Vishwa Bharati in Santiniketan, which became Visva-Bharati University in 1951. It was during her interview[clarification needed] that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe. There it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford. After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society.

During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended to by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies. She was being treated there in 1940, when Germany rapidly conquered Europe. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. The university later awarded her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford honoured her further by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. During her stay in Great Britain, Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. Their marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals, though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat. The couple had two sons, Rajiv Gandhi (born 1944) and Sanjay Gandhi (born 1946).

In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first prime minister of India. Towards the end of the 1950s, Gandhi served as the President of the Congress. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. That government had the distinction of being India's first-ever elected Communist Government. After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and served in Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. In January 1966, after Shastri's death, the Congress legislative party elected her over Morarji Desai as their leader. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected:

Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi's selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father ... a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate.

 

First term as Prime Minister between 1966 and 1977


Her first eleven years serving as prime minister saw Gandhi evolve from the perception of Congress party leaders as their puppet to a strong leader with the iron resolve to split the party over her policy positions or to go to war with Pakistan to liberate Bangladesh. At the end of 1977, she was such a dominating figure in Indian politics that Congress party president D. K. Barooah had coined the phrase "India is Indira and Indira is India."

Indira Gandhi 1971–1977

Garibi Hatao (Eradicate Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 political bid. The slogan was developed in response to the combined opposition alliance's use of the two word manifesto—"Indira Hatao" (Remove Indira). The Garibi Hatao slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi independent national support, based on the rural and urban poor. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local governments as well as the urban commercial class. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded and developed by the Central Government in New Delhi. The program was supervised and staffed by the Indian National Congress party. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed ... throughout the country."

Gandhi's biggest achievement following the 1971 election came in December 1971 with India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War that occurred in the last two weeks of the Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. She was said to be hailed as Goddess Durga by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the time. In the elections held for State assemblies across India in March 1972, the Congress (R) swept to power in most states riding on the post-war "Indira wave".

Despite the victory against Pakistan, the Congress government faced numerous problems during this term. Some of these were due to high inflation which in turn was caused by wartime expenses, drought in some parts of the country and, more importantly, the 1973 oil crisis. Opposition to her in the 1973–75 period, after the Gandhi wave had receded, was strongest in the states of Bihar and Gujarat. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there.

Verdict on electoral malpractice

On 12 June 1975, the Allahabad High Court declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha in 1971 void on the grounds of electoral malpractice. In an election petition filed by her 1971 opponent, Raj Narain (who later defeated her in the 1977 parliamentary election running in the Raebareli constituency), alleged several major as well as minor instances of the use of government resources for campaigning. Gandhi had asked one of her colleagues in government, Ashoke Kumar Sen, to defend her in court.[citation needed] She gave evidence in her defence during the trial. After almost four years, the court found her guilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using government machinery and officials for party purposes. The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery against her.

The court ordered her stripped of her parliamentary seat and banned her from running for any office for six years. As the constitution requires that the Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, the two houses of the Parliament of India, she was effectively removed from office. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign. She announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court and insisted that the conviction did not undermine her position. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments." And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods. The prime minister retained the support of her party, which issued a statement backing her.

After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. Indian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom Braj Kumar Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said. "I believe the prime minister of India will continue in office until the electorate of India decides otherwise".

State of Emergency (1975–1977)

Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975.

Indira Gandhi Rule By Decree

Within a few months, President's rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party. Police were granted powers to impose curfews and detain citizens indefinitely; all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Finally, the impending legislative assembly elections were postponed indefinitely, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on the recommendation of the state's governor.

Indira Gandhi used the emergency provisions to change conflicting party members:

Unlike her father Jawaharlal Nehru, who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states.

President Ahmed issued ordinances that did not require debate in the Parliament, allowing Gandhi to rule by decree.

 

Indira Gandhi 1977 Election And Opposition Years


In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Gandhi called elections to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. She may have grossly misjudged her popularity by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her. She was opposed by the Janata alliance of Opposition parties. The alliance was made up of Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Congress (O), The Socialist parties, and Charan Singh's Bharatiya Kranti Dal representing northern peasants and farmers. The Janata alliance, with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship". The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity, the CFD (Congress for Democracy), due primarily to intra-party politicking and the circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. The prevailing rumour was that he intended to dislodge Gandhi, and the trio stood to prevent that. Gandhi's Congress party was soundly crushed in the elections. The Janata Party's democracy or dictatorship claim seemed to resonate with the public. Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi lost their seats, and Congress was reduced to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the South. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came to power after the State of Emergency was lifted. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

In opposition and return to power

Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan as their parliamentary party leader. Soon afterwards, the Congress party split again with Gandhi floating her own Congress faction. She won a by-election in the Chikmagalur Constituency and took a seat in the Lok Sabha in November 1978 after the Janata Party's attempts to have Kannada matinee idol Rajkumar run against her failed when he refused to contest the election saying he wanted to remain apolitical. However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament. These allegations included that she "had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency". In response to her arrest, Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release. However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial gained her sympathy from many people. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). The party included right wing Hindu Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party members. With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. In 1979, the government began to unravel over the issue of the dual loyalties of some members to Janata and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)—the Hindu nationalist, paramilitary organisation. The ambitious Union finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union home minister during the previous year had ordered the Gandhi's' arrests, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. After a significant exodus from the party to Singh's faction, Desai resigned in July 1979. Singh was appointed prime minister, by President Reddy, after Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi promised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside on certain conditions. The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay. Since Singh refused to drop them, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979.

Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes.[83] In the elections held in January, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority.

1980 Elections And Third Term

The Congress Party under Gandhi swept back into power in January 1980. In this election, Gandhi was elected by the voters of the Medak constituency. Elections held soon after for legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties resulted in Congress ministries in those states. Indira's son, Sanjay selected his own loyalists to head the governments in these states. On 23 June, Sanjay was killed in a plane crash while performing an aerobatic manoeuvre in New Delhi. In 1980, as a tribute to her son's dream of launching an indigenously manufactured car, Gandhi nationalized Sanjay's debt ridden company, Maruti Udyog, for Rs. 43,000,000 (4.34 crore) and invited joint venture bids from automobile companies around the world. Suzuki of Japan was selected as the partner. The company launched its first Indian manufactured car in 1984.

By the time of Sanjay's death, Gandhi trusted only family members, and therefore persuaded her reluctant son, Rajiv, to enter politics.

Her PMO office staff included H.Y.Sharada Prasad as her information adviser and speechwriter.

 

Indira Gandhi Foreign Relations


Gandhi is remembered for her ability to effectively promote Indian foreign policy measures.

Soviet Union and Eastern block countries

The relationship between India and the Soviet Union deepened during Gandhi's rule. The main reason was the perceived bias of the United States and China, rivals of the USSR, towards Pakistan. The support of the Soviets with arms supplies and the casting of a veto at the United Nations helped in winning and consolidating the victory over Pakistan in the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets. They were unhappy with the 1974 nuclear test conducted by India but did not support further action because of the ensuing Cold War with the United States. Gandhi was unhappy with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but once again calculations involving relations with Pakistan and China kept her from criticising the Soviet Union harshly. The Soviets became the main arms supplier during the Gandhi years by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. The easy trade deals also applied to non-military goods. Under Gandhi, by the early 1980s, the Soviets had become India's largest trading partner.

United States

When Gandhi came to power in 1966, Lyndon Johnson was the US president. At the time, India was reliant on the US for food aid. Gandhi resented the US policy of food aid being used as a tool to force India to adopt policies favoured by the US. She also resolutely refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relations with the US were strained badly under President Richard Nixon and his favouring of Pakistan during the Bangladesh liberation war. Nixon despised Gandhi politically and personally. In 1981, Gandhi met President Ronald Reagan for the first time at the North–South Summit held to discuss global poverty. She had been described to him as an 'Ogre', but he found her charming and easy to work with and they formed a close working relationship during her premiership in the 1980s.

 

Indira Gandhi Domestic policy


Nationalisation

Despite the provisions, control and regulations of the Reserve Bank of India, most banks in India had continued to be owned and operated by private persons. Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority of the population) unbanked. After becoming prime minister, Gandhi expressed her intention of nationalizing the banks to alleviate poverty in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalization". The paper received overwhelming public support. In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalize fourteen major commercial banks. After this, public sector bank branch deposits increased by approximately 800 percent; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent. Nationalization also resulted in significant growth in the geographic coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in unbanked, rural areas. The nationalization drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small- and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India's industrial and agricultural base. Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalization of banks.

Having been re-elected in 1971 on a nationalisation platform, Gandhi proceeded to nationalise the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries. Most of this was done to protect employment and the interests of organised labour. The remaining private sector industries were placed under strict regulatory control.

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, foreign-owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. After nationalisation, the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed.

Language Policy

Under the 1950 Constitution of India, Hindi was to have become the official national language by 1965. This was unacceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, which wanted the continued use of English in government. In 1967, Gandhi introduced a constitutional amendment that guaranteed the de facto use of both Hindi and English as official languages. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states. Gandhi thus put herself forward as a leader with a pan-Indian vision. Nevertheless, critics alleged that her stance was actually meant to weaken the position of rival Congress leaders from the northern states such as Uttar Pradesh, where there had been strong, sometimes violent, pro-Hindi agitations. Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace.

India's nuclear programme

Gandhi contributed to, and carried out further, the vision of Jawaharlal Nehru, former premier of India, to develop its nuclear program. Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to Test No. 6 by the People's Republic of China. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation and promoted Nehru's views to establish India's stability and security interests independent from those of the nuclear superpowers.

The programme became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. Gandhi gave verbal authorization for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. As the world was quiet about this test, a vehement protest came from Pakistan as its prime minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, described the test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan. In response to this, Bhutto launched a massive campaign to make Pakistan a nuclear power. Bhutto asked the nation to unite and slogans such as "hum ghaas aur pattay kha lay gay magar nuclear power ban k rhe gay" ("We will eat grass or leaves or even go hungry, but we will get nuclear power") were employed. Gandhi directed a letter to Bhutto, and later to the world, claiming the test was for peaceful purposes and part of India's commitment to develop its programme for industrial and scientific use.

 

Indira Gandhi Family, Personal Life And Outlook


She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942. Their marriage lasted 18 years until he died of a heart attack in 1960. They had two sons—Rajiv (b. 1944) and Sanjay (b. 1946). Initially, her younger son Sanjay had been her chosen heir, but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, Gandhi persuaded her reluctant elder son Rajiv to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. Rajiv took office as prime minister following his mother's assassination in 1984; he served until December 1989. Rajiv Gandhi himself was assassinated by a suicide bomber working on behalf of LTTE on 21 May 1991.

Gandhi's yoga guru, Dhirendra Brahmachari, helped her in making certain decisions and also executed certain top level political tasks on her behalf, especially from 1975 to 1977 when Gandhi "declared a state of emergency and suspended civil liberties."

 

Posthumous Honours


  • The southernmost Indira Point is named after Gandhi.
  • The Indira Awaas Yojana, a central government low-cost housing programme for the rural poor, was named after her.
  • The international airport at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour.
  • The Indira Gandhi National Open University, the largest university in the world, is also named after her.
  • Indian National Congress established the annual Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration in 1985, given in her memory on her death anniversary.
  • The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust also constituted the annual Indira Gandhi Prize.

Rajiv Gandhi: Life And Career, Prime Minister of India

Rajiv Ratna Gandhi 20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40.

Rajiv Gandhi Biography
Rajiv Gandhi

Gandhi was from the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, which had been associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1966 and became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968, he married Sonia Gandhi; the couple settled in Delhi to a domestic life with their children Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi Vadra. For much of the 1970s, his mother Indira Gandhi was prime minister and his brother Sanjay Gandhi an MP; despite this, Rajiv Gandhi remained apolitical. After Sanjay's death in a plane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. As part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games.

On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by one of her bodyguards; later that day, Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. His leadership was tested over the next few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community, resulting in anti-Sikh riots in Delhi. That December, Congress party won the largest Lok Sabha majority to date, 411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhi's period in office was mired in controversies; perhaps the greatest crises were the Bhopal disaster, Bofors scandal and Mohd. Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum. In 1988, he reversed the coup in Maldives, antagonising militant Tamil groups such as PLOTE, intervening and then sending peacekeeping troops to Sri Lanka in 1987, leading to open conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In mid-1987, the Bofors scandal damaged his corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election.

Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991. While campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTTE. His widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and led the party to victory in the 2004 and 2009 parliamentary elections. His son Rahul Gandhi is a Member of Parliament and was the President of the Indian National Congress till 2019. In 1991, the Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, the country's highest civilian award. At the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi

 

Key Description


6th Prime Minister of India: 31 October 1984 – 2 December 1989

President Zail Singh, R. Venkataraman

Preceded By: Indira Gandhi

Succeeded By: V. P. Singh

Leader of The Opposition: 18 December 1989 – 23 December 1990

Prime Minister: V. P. Singh

Succeeded By: L. K. Advani

President of the Indian National Congress: 1985–1991

Preceded By: Indira Gandhi

Member of Parliament: Amethi (17 August 1981 – 21 May 1991)

Personal Details

Born: Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944)
Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India

Died: 21 May 1991 (aged 46), Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India

Cause of death: Assassination

Nationality: Indian

Political Party: Indian National Congress

Spouse(s): Sonia Gandhi ​(m. 1968⁠–⁠1991)​

Relations: Nehru–Gandhi family

Children:

Parents:

Education:

  • Trinity College, Cambridge (dropped out)
  • Imperial College London (dropped out)

Awards: Bharat Ratna (1991)

Party Website: Indian National Congress

 

Rajiv Gandhi Early Life And Career


Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Indira and Feroze Gandhi. In 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, and "greatly enjoyed painting and drawing".

He was admitted to the Welham Boys' School, Dehradun and Doon School, Dehradun in 1954, where Sanjay joined him two years later. Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels. Rajiv was also educated at the Ecole D'Humanité, an international boarding school in Switzerland. From 1962 to 1965 he studied engineering at Trinity College, Cambridge, but did not obtain a degree. In 1966 he began a course in mechanical engineering at Imperial College London, but did not complete it. Gandhi really was not studious enough, as he went on to admit later.

Gandhi returned to India in 1966, the year his mother became Prime Minister. He went to Delhi and became a member of the Flying Club, where he was trained as a pilot. In 1970, he was employed as a pilot by Air India; unlike Sanjay, he did not exhibit any interest of joining politics. In 1968, after three years of courtship, he married Edvige Antonia Albina Màino, who changed her name to Sonia Gandhi and made India her home. Their first child, a son, Rahul Gandhi was born in 1970. In 1972, the couple had a daughter, Priyanka Gandhi, who married Robert Vadra.

 

Rajiv Gandhi Entry into Politics


On 23 June 1980, Rajiv's younger brother Sanjay Gandhi died unexpectedly in an aeroplane crash. At that time, Rajiv Gandhi was in London as part of his foreign tour. Hearing the news, he returned to Delhi and cremated Sanjay's body. As per Agarwal, in the week following Sanjay's death, Shankaracharya Swami Shri Swaroopanand, a saint from Badrinath, visited the family's house to offer his condolences. He advised Rajiv not to fly aeroplanes and instead "dedicate himself to the service of the nation". 70 members of the Congress party signed a proposal and went to Indira, urging Rajiv to enter politics. Indira told them it was Rajiv's decision whether to enter politics. When he was questioned about it, he replied, "If my mother gets help from it, then I will enter politics". Rajiv entered politics on 16 February 1981, when he addressed a national farmers' rally in Delhi. During this time, he was still an employee of Air India.

Participation in active politics

On 4 May 1981, Indira Gandhi presided over a meeting of the All India Congress Committee. Vasantdada Patil proposed Rajiv as a candidate for the Amethi constituency, which was accepted by all members at the meeting. A week later, the party officially announced his candidacy for the constituency. He then paid the party membership fees of the party and flew to Sultanpur to file his nomination papers and completed other formalities. He won the seat, defeating Lok Dal candidate Sharad Yadav by a margin of 237,000 votes. He took his oath on 17 August as Member of Parliament.

Rajiv Gandhi's first political tour was to England, where he attended the wedding ceremony of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981. In December the same year, he was put in charge of the Indian Youth Congress. He first showed his organisational ability by "working round the clock" on the 1982 Asian Games. He was one of 33 members of the Indian parliament who were part of the Games' organizing committee; sports historian Boria Majumdar writes that being "son of the prime minister he had a moral and unofficial authority" over the others. The report submitted by the Asian Games committee mentions Gandhi's "drive, zeal and initiative" for the "outstanding success" of the games.

Indira Gandhi's death

On 31 October 1984, the Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi's mother Indira Gandhi, was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards, which led to violent riots against Sikhs. At a Boat Club rally 19 days after the assassination, Gandhi said, "Some riots took place in the country following the murder of Indiraji. We know the people were very angry and for a few days it seemed that India had been shaken. But, when a mighty tree falls, it is only natural that the earth around it does shake a little". According to Verinder Grover, the statement made by Gandhi was a "virtual justification" of the riots. Congress leader Mani Shankar Aiyar wrote, "Did it constitute an incitement to mass murder?" He also criticised Gandhi for his reluctance to bring the army from Meerut to handle the mob.

 

Rajiv Gandhi Prime Minister of India


Rajiv Gandhi was in West Bengal on 31 October 1984 when his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, to avenge the military attack on the Golden Temple during Operation Blue Star. Sardar Buta Singh and President Zail Singh pressed Rajiv to succeed his mother as Prime Minister within hours of her murder. Commenting on the anti-Sikh riots in Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi said, "When a giant tree falls, the earth below shakes"; a statement for which he was widely criticised. Many Congress politicians were accused of orchestrating the violence.

Soon after assuming office, Gandhi asked President Singh to dissolve Parliament and hold fresh elections, as the Lok Sabha had completed its five-year term. Gandhi officially became the President of the Congress party, which won a landslide victory with the largest majority in history of the Indian Parliament, giving Gandhi absolute control of government. He benefited from his youth and a general perception of being free of a background in corrupt politics. Gandhi took his oath on 31 December 1984; at 40, he was the youngest Prime Minister of India. Historian Meena Agarwal writes that even after taking the Prime Ministerial oath, he was a relatively unknown figure, "novice in politics" as he assumed the post after being an MP for three years.

Rajiv Gandhi Economic policy

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi with Ram Kishore Shukla in 1988.
In his election manifesto for the 1984 general election, he did not mention any economic reforms, but after assuming office he tried to liberalise the country's economy. He did so by providing incentives to make private production profitable. Subsidies were given to corporate companies to increase industrial production, especially of durable goods. It was hoped this would increase economic growth and improve the quality of investment. But according to Professor Atul Kohli of Princeton University in a book published by Cambridge University, Gandhi faced stiff opposition from Congress leadership who thought "it would open the economy to external economic influences". Rural and tribal people protested because they saw them as "pro-rich" and "pro-city" reforms.

Gandhi increased government support for science, technology and associated industries, and reduced import quotas, taxes and tariffs on technology-based industries, especially computers, airlines, defence and telecommunications. In 1986, he announced a National Policy on Education to modernise and expand higher education programs across India. In 1986, he founded the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya System, which is a Central government-based education institution that provides rural populations with free residential education from grades six to twelve. His efforts created MTNL in 1986, and his public call offices—better known as PCOs—helped develop the telephone network in rural areas. He introduced measures to significantly reduce the Licence Raj after 1990, allowing businesses and individuals to purchase capital, consumer goods and import without bureaucratic restrictions.

Rajiv Gandhi Foreign policy

President Ronald Reagan, Sonia Gandhi, First Lady Nancy Reagan and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, during a state dinner for Prime Minister Gandhi. June 1985.

According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, a scholar of Indian foreign policy and an ideologue of Congress party, Rajiv Gandhi's vision for a new world order was premised on India's place in its front rank. According to Laskar, the "whole gamut" of Rajiv Gandhi's foreign policy was "geared towards" making India "strong, independent, self-reliant and in the front rank of the nations of the world." According to Laskar, Rajiv Gandhi's diplomacy was "properly calibrated" so as to be "conciliatory and accommodating when required" and "assertive when the occasion demanded."

In 1986, by request of the President of Seychelles France-Albert René, Gandhi sent India's navy to Seychelles to oppose an attempted coup against René. The intervention of India averted the coup. This mission was codenamed as Operation Flowers are Blooming. In 1987, India re-occupied the Quaid Post in the disputed Siachen region of the Indo-Pakistani border after winning what was termed Operation Rajiv. In the 1988 Maldives coup d'état, the Maldives president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom asked for help from Gandhi. He dispatched 1500 soldiers and the coup was suppressed.

On Thursday, 9 June 1988, at the fifteenth special session of the United Nations General Assembly, held at Headquarters, New York, Gandhi made vocal his views on a world free of nuclear weapons, to be realised through an, 'Action Plan for Ushering in a Nuclear-Weapon Free and Non-Violent World Order.

He said:

Alas, nuclear weapons are not the only weapons of mass destruction. New knowledge is being generated in the life sciences. Military applications of these developments could rapidly undermine the existing convention against the military use of biological weapons. The ambit of our concern must extend to all means of mass annihilation.

This was based on his prior historic speech before the Japanese National Diet on 29 November 1985, in which he said:

Let us remove the mental partitions which obstruct the ennobling vision of the human family linked together in peace and prosperity. The Buddha's message of compassion is the very condition of human survival in our age.

The foiled bid of India recently to enter the Nuclear Suppliers Group, echoed his policy of non-proliferation to be linked to universal disarmament, which the World Nuclear Association refuses to recognize; non-proliferation being seen by India as essentially a weapon of the arms control regime, of the big nuclear powers as United States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China.

 

Bofors scandal, HDW scandal and 1989 elections defeat


Rajiv Gandhi's finance minister, V. P. Singh, uncovered compromising details about government and political corruption, to the consternation of Congress leaders. Transferred to the Defence Ministry, Singh uncovered what became known as the Bofors scandal, which involved millions of US dollars and concerned alleged payoffs by the Swedish arms company Bofors through Italian businessman and Gandhi family associate Ottavio Quattrocchi, in return for Indian contracts. Upon discovering the scandal, Singh was dismissed from office and later resigned his Congress membership. Gandhi was later personally implicated in the scandal when the investigation was continued by Narasimhan Ram and Chitra Subramaniam of The Hindu newspaper, damaging his image as an honest politician. In 2004, he was posthumously cleared of this allegation.

In an interview in July 2005, V.P.Singh explained that his fall out with Rajiv Gandhi was not due to the Bofors deal, but rather due to the HDW deal. Courtesy a contract signed with the Germany company HDW in 1981, the Indian government had agreed to purchase two ready submarines built in Germany by HDW and two submarines in CKD form to be assembled in Mazagaon docks. V.P.Singh had received a telegram from the Indian ambassador in Germany, stating that an Indian agents had received commissions in the HDW submarine deal. He told Rajiv Gandhi about this and instituted an enquiry. This led to differences and V.P.Singh resigned from the cabinet.

In his book, Unknown Facets of Rajiv Gandhi, Jyoti Basu and Indrajit Gupta, released in November 2013, former CBI director Dr. A P Mukherjee wrote that Gandhi wanted commission paid by defence suppliers to be used exclusively for meeting running expenses of the Congress party. Mukherjee said Gandhi explained his position in a meeting between the two at the Prime Minister's residence on 19 June 1989. In May 2015, Indian president Pranab Mukherjee said the scandal was a "media trial" as "no Indian court has as yet established it as a scandal".

Opposition parties Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Socialist) and Jan Morcha united under Singh to form the Janata Dal. Singh led the National Front coalition to victory in 1989 elections and he was sworn in as Prime Minister. Though the coalition won 143 seats compared to Congress's 197, it gained majority in the lower house of the parliament through outside support from the Bharatiya Janta Party under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani and the left parties such as the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the Communist Party of India. Eminent lawyer and politician, former Law Minister of India Ram Jethmalani said that as Prime Minister, Gandhi was "lacklustre and mediocre".

Modi Government Big Achievement: 5 Years of Modi Govt.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be judged on his government’s five year performance. How does his report card read? check out the modi government big achievement in 5 years.

Modi Government Big Achievement

Modi Government Big Achievement: Flagship Success


Ayushman Bharat:

The health insurance scheme launched on September 23, 2018, has already benefited 10 lakh poor patients and could be an electoral game-changer. More than 500 million Indians who could not afford medical treatment for non-communicable illnesses like cancer and heart disease now have access to free healthcare.

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code:

The legislation, enacted in December 2016, is the silver bullet to tackle India’s chronic problem of non-performing assets. Banks have begun to recover debts that had seemingly turned irretrievably bad. “Phone banking” has ground to a halt.

Rural electrification:

The Modi government’s push to provide last-mile connectivity to hard-to-access rural clusters has been fairly successful. However, several villages cited as connected to the electrical grid still have households without power. Part of the problem is that some villages lie in areas controlled by Naxalites while in others the terrain makes access difficult.

Free LPG cylinders:

Under the Ujjwala Yojana scheme, women in villages now have access to cooking gas. This has both health and economic benefits. Over 60 million free LPG connections have been given with nearly 50 per cent going to SC/ST households.

Sanitation:

The Swachh Bharat Mission has built toilets at an unprecedented pace. Since October 2014, over 92 million toilets have been constructed, covering nearly 500 million households in one of the world’s largest operations of its kind. Cultural habits, however, mean that open-air defecation remains endemic. Many newly-built toilets lack sewage facilities; others are being used as storage rooms. Nonetheless, a beginning has been made.

Digital transfer of subsidies:

This has cut out most (though not all) middlemen who routinely siphoned off large chunks of benefits due to the poor. Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister, had famously said in December 1985, while addressing the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Congress, that only 15 paise out of every rupee in subsidies reaches the poor. With digitized transfers that figure has probably risen to 75 paise.

However, lack of Internet connectivity in rural areas, combined with limited digital literacy among farmers and labourers, often leave them at the mercy of local officials to access their money electronically.

Infrastructure:

There has been a steep rise in building roads, highways and metro networks as well as housing for the poor. These are long-term initiatives but the benefits are already visible. According to fact-checking sites, 12km of highways were constructed in 2013-14. This pace more than doubled to 27km per day in 2017-18. In Mumbai alone, coastal roads, a new airport and a large metro network could transform public transport in India’s richest city that has long been infrastructure-poor.

 

Modi Government Big Achievement - Strong Basics


Foreign policy:

The government has repaired relations with China, the Maldives and Sri Lanka, built economic and geopolitical bridges to east Asia and west Asia and strengthened the strategic partnership with the US.

GST:

The implementation of the goods and services tax was chaotic and its structure needlessly complex. Its benefits, though, are beginning to seep through the economy. Revenue is lower than expected but the removal of octroi, for example, has greatly helped the logistics and transport industries. The absence of state boundary checks means truckers save up to 30 per cent in fuel and time, raising productivity with quicker turnarounds.

 

Modi All the PM’s men


Boosting India’s space programme:

ISRO has proved that putting scientists and technocrats rather than bureaucrats in charge of key organisations pays dividends. The success of ISRO also highlights the government’s lacunae in other areas of institution building.

Failures of the government across domains have taken some of the sheen off its concrete achievements. The Centre has let key institutions wither. A Lok Pal has not been appointed. The Central Bureau of Investigation and the Reserve Bank of Inadia have lacked strong, consistent leadership. A talent deficit is evident at all levels: the Cabinet, academic institutions and statutory bodies.

Tax laws lack certitude. The bureaucracy, in the defense and finance ministries in particular, has not distinguished itself. The Prime Minister’s Office maintains a sphinx-like silence on key issues, allowing disinformation full play.

Modi is India’s best election campaigner and executor of important developmental schemes. But as Prime Minister, you need to go beyond that and nurture talent.

The most successful leaders surround themselves with people smarter than themselves.

The Prime Minister, in contrast, is surrounded by people who are not smarter than him. That is, perhaps, the biggest failing of his prime ministership.

 

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