Modi Government Big Achievement: 5 Years of Modi Govt.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be judged on his government’s five year performance. How does his report card read? check out the modi government big achievement in 5 years.

Modi Government Big Achievement

Modi Government Big Achievement: Flagship Success

Ayushman Bharat:

The health insurance scheme launched on September 23, 2018, has already benefited 10 lakh poor patients and could be an electoral game-changer. More than 500 million Indians who could not afford medical treatment for non-communicable illnesses like cancer and heart disease now have access to free healthcare.

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code:

The legislation, enacted in December 2016, is the silver bullet to tackle India’s chronic problem of non-performing assets. Banks have begun to recover debts that had seemingly turned irretrievably bad. “Phone banking” has ground to a halt.

Rural electrification:

The Modi government’s push to provide last-mile connectivity to hard-to-access rural clusters has been fairly successful. However, several villages cited as connected to the electrical grid still have households without power. Part of the problem is that some villages lie in areas controlled by Naxalites while in others the terrain makes access difficult.

Free LPG cylinders:

Under the Ujjwala Yojana scheme, women in villages now have access to cooking gas. This has both health and economic benefits. Over 60 million free LPG connections have been given with nearly 50 per cent going to SC/ST households.


The Swachh Bharat Mission has built toilets at an unprecedented pace. Since October 2014, over 92 million toilets have been constructed, covering nearly 500 million households in one of the world’s largest operations of its kind. Cultural habits, however, mean that open-air defecation remains endemic. Many newly-built toilets lack sewage facilities; others are being used as storage rooms. Nonetheless, a beginning has been made.

Digital transfer of subsidies:

This has cut out most (though not all) middlemen who routinely siphoned off large chunks of benefits due to the poor. Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister, had famously said in December 1985, while addressing the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Congress, that only 15 paise out of every rupee in subsidies reaches the poor. With digitized transfers that figure has probably risen to 75 paise.

However, lack of Internet connectivity in rural areas, combined with limited digital literacy among farmers and labourers, often leave them at the mercy of local officials to access their money electronically.


There has been a steep rise in building roads, highways and metro networks as well as housing for the poor. These are long-term initiatives but the benefits are already visible. According to fact-checking sites, 12km of highways were constructed in 2013-14. This pace more than doubled to 27km per day in 2017-18. In Mumbai alone, coastal roads, a new airport and a large metro network could transform public transport in India’s richest city that has long been infrastructure-poor.


Modi Government Big Achievement - Strong Basics

Foreign policy:

The government has repaired relations with China, the Maldives and Sri Lanka, built economic and geopolitical bridges to east Asia and west Asia and strengthened the strategic partnership with the US.


The implementation of the goods and services tax was chaotic and its structure needlessly complex. Its benefits, though, are beginning to seep through the economy. Revenue is lower than expected but the removal of octroi, for example, has greatly helped the logistics and transport industries. The absence of state boundary checks means truckers save up to 30 per cent in fuel and time, raising productivity with quicker turnarounds.


Modi All the PM’s men

Boosting India’s space programme:

ISRO has proved that putting scientists and technocrats rather than bureaucrats in charge of key organisations pays dividends. The success of ISRO also highlights the government’s lacunae in other areas of institution building.

Failures of the government across domains have taken some of the sheen off its concrete achievements. The Centre has let key institutions wither. A Lok Pal has not been appointed. The Central Bureau of Investigation and the Reserve Bank of Inadia have lacked strong, consistent leadership. A talent deficit is evident at all levels: the Cabinet, academic institutions and statutory bodies.

Tax laws lack certitude. The bureaucracy, in the defense and finance ministries in particular, has not distinguished itself. The Prime Minister’s Office maintains a sphinx-like silence on key issues, allowing disinformation full play.

Modi is India’s best election campaigner and executor of important developmental schemes. But as Prime Minister, you need to go beyond that and nurture talent.

The most successful leaders surround themselves with people smarter than themselves.

The Prime Minister, in contrast, is surrounded by people who are not smarter than him. That is, perhaps, the biggest failing of his prime ministership.


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National Informatics Centre: Government IT Services, News

The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is an attached office under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in the Indian government. The NIC provides infrastructure to help support the delivery of government IT services and the delivery of some of the initiatives of Digital India.

National Informatics Centre (NIC) Latest News 2020


Key Description of National Informatics Centre (NIC)

Abbreviation: NIC

Formation: 1976 (44 years ago)

Headquarters: New Delhi

Location: Pan India

Region served: India

Director General: Neeta Verma

Parent organisation: Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

Budget: ₹11.5 billion (US$160 million)

Staff: 4500 (May 2018)


Social Network: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram



The NIC was established in 1976 under the aegis of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.

The NIC is credited with helping the Indian government embrace IT in the 1990s and has also helped disseminate e-governance to the masses.

It had an annual budget of ₹11.5 billion (US$160 million) for the year 2018–19.

In May 2019, the government of India set up the Centre for Smart Governance (CSG), and state governments have since been advised to consult the CSG for IT projects they previously would have consulted the NIC and private firms for. Some claim that government sources have said "NIC is said to be unable to scale up", and Rajeev Chawla, Additional Chief Secretary (e-Governance), was quoted as saying "CSG will be an analogue to NIC".


Infrastructure of National Informatics Centre (NIC)


The National Informatics Centre (NIC) was established in 1976 under the Planning Commission by the India Government. Then Additional Secretary late Dr. N Shesagiri was the first to introduce a network system in India called NICNET. In 1990, the takeoff by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology NIC's ICT Network, "NICNET", facilitates the institutional linkages with the Ministries/Departments of the Central Government, state Governments and District administrations of India. NIC is noted for being the primary constructor of e-Government applications.

Data centres and offices

In 2018, NIC opened its fourth data centre in Bhubaneshwar to complement its existing data centres in New Delhi, Hyderabad and Pune. In addition to the national data centres there are NIC State Centres in 36 states or Union territories. This is supplemented by 708 district offices.

National Portal of India

NIC maintains the National Portal of India. The portal contains the Constitution of India,[16] and claims to have a design objective to a single point to access the information and services of the Government of India.

Administration in Bihar: Department of Government of Bihar

Administration in Bihar: Bihar is a state situated in Eastern India. It is surrounded by West Bengal to the east, Uttar Pradesh to the west, Jharkhand to the south and Nepal to the north.


Key Description of Administration in Bihar:

Seat of Government: Patna

Governor: Fagu Chauhan

Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar

Assembly: Bihar Legislative Assembly

Speaker: Vijay Kumar Chaudhary

Members in Assembly: 243

Council: Bihar Legislative Council

Chairman: Awadhesh Narain Singh

Members in Council: 75

High Court: Patna High Court

Chief Justice: Justice Shri Sanjay Karol

Lower Courts: District courts and Panchayats


History of Administration in Bihar

Before 1905, Bihar was a part of British East India Company's Bengal Presidency. In 1905 the Bengal Presidency was divided and created two new provinces: East Bengal and West Bengal. Until then Bihar was part of West Bengal. Again West Bengal and East Bengal reunited in 1911 but the people of Bihar and Orrisa demanded a separate province based on language rather than religion. In 1912 Bihar and Orissa Province was created separating from Bengal Presidency. In 1936, Bihar and Orrisa Province divided into two new provinces: Bihar Province and Orissa Province.


Bihar and Orissa Province

Following Divisions were included in Bihar and Orissa Province when it separated from Bengal Presidency in 1912:

  • Bhagalpur Division (districts of Bhagalpur, Munger (Monghyr),
  • Purnea and the Sonthal Parganas)
  • Patna Division (Gaya, Patna and Shahabad)
  • Tirhut Division (Champaran, Darbhanga, Muaffarpur and Saran)
  • Chota Nagpur Division (Hazaribagh, Manbhum, Palamau, Ranchi and Singhbhum)
  • Orissa Division (Angul, Balasore, Cuttack, Puri and Sambatpur)
  • On 1 April 1936 Bihar and Orissa Province was divided into two new provinces: Bihar Province and Orissa Province


Bihar Province

In 1936, Bihar became a separate province including part of Jharkhand.

After the independence of India in 1951, Bihar including Jharkhand had 18 districts, and had 55 districts in 1991.


In 2000, Bihar again divided into two states: the current Bihar and Jharkhand. In 2001 Bihar had a total of 38 districts.


Administrative Structure: Administration in Bihar

Structurally Bihar is divided into divisions (Pramandal), districts (Zila), sub-divisions (Anumandal) & circles (Aanchal).

The state is divided into 9 divisions, 38 districts, 101 subdivisions and 534 circles. 12 municipal corporations, 49 Nagar Parishads and 80 Nagar Panchayats, for administrative purposes. The various districts included in the divisions—Patna, Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger and Magadh Division—are as listed below.

administration in bihar


Divisions in Bihar

There are 9 divisions in Bihar.

  • Patna division
  • Saran division
  • Tirhut division
  • Purnia division
  • Bhagalpur division
  • Darbhanga division
  • Kosi division
  • Magadh division
  • Munger division


Districts of Bihar

There are 38 districts in Bihar, grouped into 9 divisions.

  • Araria
  • Arwal
  • Aurangabad
  • Banka
  • Begusarai
  • Bhagalpur
  • Bhojpur
  • Buxar
  • Darbhanga
  • East Champaran
  • Gaya
  • Gopalganj
  • Jamui
  • Jehanabad
  • Khagaria
  • Kishanganj
  • Kaimur
  • Katihar
  • Lakhisarai
  • Madhubani
  • Munger
  • Madhepura
  • Muzaffarpur
  • Nalanda
  • Nawada
  • Patna
  • Purnea
  • Rohtas
  • Saharsa
  • Samastipur
  • Sheohar
  • Sheikhpura
  • Saran
  • Sitamarhi
  • Supaul
  • Siwan
  • Vaishali
  • West Champaran



Sub-divisions (Anumandal) in Bihar are like sub-districts. There are 101 subdivisions in Bihar.


Block of Bihar

The Indian state of Bihar is divided into 534, The Best CD Block of Bihar is Chhourahi, District Begusarai administrative subdivisions called blocks.

District Block
Begusarai Chhourahi
Begusarai Balia
Begusarai Mansurchak
Gaya Gurua
Gaya Konch
Gaya Manpur
Gaya Paraiya
Gaya BankeBazar
Gaya Imamganj
Gaya Dumariya
Gaya Barachatti
Gaya wazirganj
Gaya Sherghati
Gaya Tekari
Gopalganj Kuchaikote
Jehanabad Hulasganj
Madhepura Alamnagar
Madhepura Bihariganj
Madhepura Chousa
Madhepura Gamhariya
Madhepura Ghelardh
Madhepura Gwalpara
Madhepura Kumarkhand
Madhepura Madhepura
Madhepura Murliganj
Madhepura Puraini
Madhepura Shankarpur
Madhepura Singheshwar
Madhepura Udakishunganj
Munger Dharhara
Muzaffarpur Sahebganj
Nawada Akbarpur


District Block
Purnia Bhawanipur
Saran Dariapur
Saran Sonpur
Sitamarhi Majorganj
Siwan Andar
Siwan Barharia
Siwan Basantpur
Siwan Bhagwanpur Hat
Siwan Darauli
Siwan Daraundha
Siwan Goriakothi
Siwan Guthani
Siwan Hasanpura
Siwan Hussainganj, Siwan
Siwan Lakri Nabiganj
Siwan Maharajganj
Siwan Mairwa
Siwan Nautan
Siwan Panchrukhi
Siwan Raghunathpur, Siwan
Siwan Siswan
Siwan Siwan
Siwan Ziradei


District Block
Vaishali Bhagwanpur
Vaishali Bidupur
Vaishali Chehrakala
Vaishali Desari
Vaishali Goraul
Vaishali Hajipur
Vaishali Jandaha
Vaishali Lalganj
Vaishali Mahnar
Vaishali Mahua
Vaishali Patedhi Belsar
Vaishali Patepur
Vaishali Raghopur, Vaishali
Vaishali Rajapakar
Vaishali Sahdei Buzurg
Vaishali Vaishali


Municipal corporations

Further information: List of cities in Bihar by Population
There are 12 municipal corporation in bihar.

  • Patna
  • Gaya
  • Bhagalpur
  • Muzaffarpur
  • Purnia
  • Darbhanga
  • Katihar
  • Chhapra
  • Begusarai
  • Arrah
  • Biharsharif
  • Munger



High Court

The Patna High Court (Hindi: पटना उच्च न्यायालय) is the High Court of the state of Bihar. It was established on February 3, 1916, and later affiliated under the Government of India Act, 1915. The court is headquartered in Patna, the administrative capital of the state.

A proclamation was made by the Governor-General of India on 22 March 1912. The foundation-stone of the High Court Building was laid on 1 December 1913 by the late Viceroy and Governor-General of India, Sir Charles Hardinge of Penshurst. The Patna High Court building on its completion was formally opened by the same Viceroy on 3 February 1916. Hon. Sir Justice Edward Maynard Des Champs Chamier was the first Chief Justice of Patna High Court.

This High Court has given two Chief Justices of India: Hon'ble Mr. Justice Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Sinha, the 6th C.J.I., and Hon. Mr. Justice Lalit Mohan Sharma, the 24th C.J.I..

Hon. The Chief Justice Mr. Sanjay Karol is the current Chief Justice of Patna High Court.


Legislature of Administration in Bihar

Bihar is one of the seven states where bicameral legislature exists. Other states are Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. The Vidhan Parishad serves as the upper house and Vidhan Sabha serves as the lower house of a bicameral legislature.

Vidhan Sabha

The Vidhan Sabha is also known as Legislative Assembly. The Bihar Legislative Assembly first came into being in 1937. The current strength of the House is 243.

Vidhan Parishad

The Vidhan Parishad is also known as Legislative Council.

A new province of Bihar and Orissa was created by the British Government on 12 December 1911. The Legislative Council with a total of 43 members belonging to different categories was formed in 1912. The first sitting of the Council was convened on 20 January 1913. In 1936, Bihar attained its separate Statehood. Under the Government of India Act, 1919, the unicameral legislature got converted into bicameral one, i.e. the Bihar Legislative Council and the Bihar Legislative Assembly. Under the Government of India Act, 1935, the Bihar Legislative Council consisted of 29 members. After the first General Elections 1952, the number of members was increased up to 72 and by 1958 the number was raised to 96. With the creation of Jharkhand, as a result of the Bihar Re-organisation Act, 2000 passed by the Parliament, the strength of the Bihar Legislative Council has been reduced from 96 to 75 members.


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Department of Science and Technology (DST): News 2020

The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is a department within the Ministry of Science and Technology in India. It was established in May 1971 to promote new areas of science and technology and to play the role of a nodal department for organizing, coordinating and promoting Scientific and Technological activities in the country.

Department of Science and Technology (DST)

It gives funds to various approved scientific projects in India. It also supports various researchers in India to attend conferences abroad and to go for experimental works.

Minister of State Dr. Harsh Vardhan is head of the department, while Ashutosh Sharma is its present secretary.

DST supports open access to scientific knowledge, originated from the public-funded research in India. In December 2014, the DST and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India had jointly adopted their Open Access Policy.


Key Description of DST:

Headquarters location: New Delhi

Founded: May 1971

Subsidiary: National Innovation Foundation – India

Official: Website Link

Social Network: Facebook, YouTube



Organisation of DST

  • MACS-Agharkar Research Institute.
  • International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI)
  • Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC)
  • Vigyan Prasar - Established in 1989, Vigyan Prasar (VP) is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Science and
  • Technology whose objectives are to take up large-scale science popularisation tasks/activities, to promote and propagate scientific and rational outlook, to act as a resource-cum-facility centre for S&T communication. It publishes a magazine Dream 2047.
  • Indian Board of Science Education (IBSE BOARD)
  • National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL)
  • National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)
  • National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO), Calcutta
  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun
  • Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST), Mohali
  • Survey of India, Dehradun
  • India Meteorological Department (IMD)

CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research): News

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada) abbreviated as CSIR was established by the Government of India in September 1942 as an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India .

CSIR - Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

As of 2013, it runs 38 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers and 5 units throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 14,000, including a total of 4600 scientists and 8000 technical and support personnel.

Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.

The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.

Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of DST took additional charge as director general of CSIR, with effect from August 24, 2018. Since 18 October 2018, Shekhar C. Mande is the Director General of CSIR-cum-Secretary DSIR

In terms of Intellectual property, CSIR has 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents in force in India.

CSIR is granted more than 14000 patents worldwide since its inception. CSIR is awarded the National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in the category “Top R&D Institution / Organization for Patents and Commercialization” by Indian Patent Office.

In late 2007, the Minister of Science and Technology, Kapil Sibal stated, in a Question Hour session of the Parliament, that CSIR has developed 1,376 technologies/knowledgebase during the last decade of the 20th century.


Key Description of CSIR:

Founder(s): Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar and Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar

Established: 26 September 1942

President: Prime Minister of India

Director General: Shekhar C. Mande

Budget: 3098 Crore as of 2013

Subsidiaries: 38 laboratories, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers

Location: Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110 001.

official: website

Social Network: Twitter


History of CSIR:

In the 1930s, the need for establishing research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries in India began to emerge. Eminent citizens such as C. V. Raman, Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell and J. C. Ghosh had proposed the creation of an advisory board of scientific research.

Sir Richard Gregory, then editor of Nature, was among the first people who officially reported to the British Government.

After visiting scientific departments and universities in India in 1933, Gregory submitted to Samuel Hoare, Secretary of State for India, regarding the need of scientific organisation similar to the DSIR in Britain.

Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an Indian Academy of Sciences, respectively.

At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933, the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand for a co-ordinating forum for industrial research. Hoare advised the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, to support the demand. However, in May 1934, Willingdon replied to Hoare saying, "The creation of a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in India to promote the application of research to natural resources does not appear to be necessary." While the Indian DSIR was rejected, the colonial government provided a small concession.

It instead offered to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau, which came into operation in April 1935 under the Indian Stores Department.

The Bureau's limited resources (with a budget of INR 1.0 lakh per annum) made it impossible to initiate major research and industrial activities as had been hoped for; it was mainly concerned with testing and quality control.

Then the constitution of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as an autonomous body was prepared under Mudaliar and Bhatnagar. Thus, CSIR came into operation on 26 September 1942.

The BSIR and IRUC were incorporated into the advisory bodies to the governing body of the CSIR. In 1943 the governing body of CSIR approved the proposal of Bhatnagar, though the initiative of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, to establish five national laboratories — the National Chemical Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory, the Fuel Research Station, the Glass & Ceramics Research Institute and the National Metallurgical Laboratory.

In 1944 in addition to its annual budget of INR 1 million, CSIR received a grant of INR 10 million for the establishment of these laboratories.

The Tata Industrial House donated INR 2 million for the chemical, metallurgical and fuel research laboratories. The foundation for the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute at Kolkata was the first to be laid, in December 1945; National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur in November 1946; and that for the National Chemical Laboratory at Pune was the last, on 6 April 1947, four months before India became independent. All the five establishments were completed by 1950.



Organization Structure

President : Prime Minister (Ex-Officio)

Vice President : Minister of Science & Technology, India (Ex-Officio)

Governing Body : The Director General is the head of the governing body. The other ex-officio member is the finance secretary (expenditures). Other members' terms are three years.

CSIR Advisory Board : 15-member body composed of prominent members from respective fields of science and technology. Its function is to provide S&T inputs to the governing body. Member terms are three years.


CSIR Achievements:

  • Developed India's first synthetic drug, methaqualone in 1950.
  • Developed Optical Glass at CGCRI for defence purposes.
  • Developed first Indian tractor Swaraj in 1967 completely based on indigenous know-how.
  • Achieved the first breakthrough of flowering of Bamboo within weeks as against twenty years in nature.
  • First to analyse genetic diversity of the indigenous Andamanese tribes and to establish their origin out of Africa 60,000 years ago.
  • Developed the first transgenic Drosophila model for drug screening for cancer in humans.
  • Invented, once a week non-steroidal family planning pill Saheli and non-steroidal herbal pill for asthma called Asmon.
  • Designed India's first ever parallel processing computer, Flosolver.
  • Rejuvenated India's one-hundred-year-old refinery at Digboi using the most modern molecular distillation technology.
  • With TCS, developed a versatile portable PC-based software 'Bio-Suite' for bioinformatics.
  • Design of 14 seater plane 'SARAS'.
  • Established first ever in the world 'Traditional Knowledge Digital Library' accessible in five international languages, English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish.
  • Successfully challenged the grant of patent in the US for use of haldi (turmeric) for wound healing and neem as insecticide.
  • In 2007, under the NMITLI program, began the study of Sepsivac, a drug for gram-negative sepsis.
  • In 2009, completed the sequencing of the Human Genome.
  • In 2011, successfully tested India's 1st indigenous civilian aircraft, NAL
  • NM5 made in association with National Aerospace Laboratories and Mahindra Aerospace.
  • In 2020, initiated clinical trials to evaluate Sepsivac's efficacy to reduce mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.


Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology

The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize was established by CSIR in 1958. The prize is named after the Founder Director Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.

The nominees for the award are filtered out from the research categories of - Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary, Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Medical Sciences & Physical Sciences.

The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize comes up with a Citation, a Plaque & a Cash Award of 5 Lakh Rupees with the addition of a stipend of 15,000/- per month (till the age of 65).

Every year, the Award Selection Committee of CSIR presents the award to maximum 2 individuals from each research category. As per the stats, the SSB Prize has been awarded to 525 individuals for their exemplary work in Science & Technology.

The candidates must be:

  • Indian Nationality
  • Overseas citizen of India (OCI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) working in India
  • The awardee must have made conspicuously important and outstanding contributions to human knowledge and progress – fundamental and applied – in the field of endeavor, which is his/her specialization.
  • Upper Age Limit – 45 years.

The above criteria help CSIR Committee to select the eligible candidates for the award but the selection will be based on the results of selection procedure which is conducted by the Advisory Committee of CSIR.


Research laboratories under CSIR


Laboratory State City
AMPRI - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
C-MMACS - CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation Karnataka Bengaluru
CBRI - CSIR-Central Building Research Institute Uttaranchal Roorkee
CCMB- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology Telangana Hyderabad
CDRI - Central Drug Research Institute Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
CECRI- Central Electro Chemical Research Institute Tamil Nadu Karaikudi
CEERI - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute Rajasthan Pilani
CFTRI - Central Food Technological Research Institute Karnataka Mysore
CGCRI - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute West Bengal Kolkata
CIMAP - Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
CIMFR - Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research Jharkhand Dhanbad
CLRI - Central Leather Research Institute Tamil Nadu Chennai
CMERI - Central mechanical engineering research institute West Bengal Durgapur
CRRI - Central Road Research Institute Delhi New Delhi
CSIO - Central Scientific Instruments Organisation Chandigarh Chandigarh
CSMCRI - Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Gujarat Bhavnagar
IGIB - Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology Delhi Delhi
IHBT - Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology Himachal Pradesh Palampur
IICB - Indian Institute of Chemical Biology West Bengal Kolkata
IICT - Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Telangana Hyderabad
IIIM, Jammu - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine Jammu Jammu
IIP - Indian Institute of Petroleum Uttaranchal Dehradun
IMMT - Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology Odisha Bhubaneswar
IMTECH - Institute of Microbial Technology Chandigarh Chandigarh
IITR - Indian Institute of Toxicology Research Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
NAL - National Aerospace Laboratories Karnataka Bengaluru
NBRI - National Botanical Research Institute Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
NCL - National Chemical Laboratory Maharashtra Pune
NEERI - National Environmental Engineering Research Institute Maharashtra Nagpur
NEIST (RRL), Jorhat - North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat Assam Jorhat
NGRI - National Geophysical Research Institute Telangana Hyderabad
NIIST - National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
NIO - National Institute of Oceanography Goa Dona Paula
NISCAIR - National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources Delhi New Delhi
NISTADS - National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies Delhi New Delhi
NML - National Metallurgical Laboratory Jharkhand Jamshedpur
NPL - National Physical Laboratory Delhi New Delhi
OSDD - Open Source Drug Discovery
SERC, M - Structural Engineering Research Centre Tamil Nadu Chennai
URDIP Unit for Research and Development of Information Products Maharashtra Pune


MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource Development): News

The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), formerly Ministry of Education (until 25 September 1985), is responsible for the development of human resources in India.

Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD)

The Ministry is held currently by Ramesh Pokhriyal and is divided into two departments:

  • The Department of School Education and Literacy which deals with primary, secondary and higher secondary education, adult education and literacy
  • The Department of Higher Education, which deals with university education, technical education, scholarship etc.

The erstwhile Ministry of Education now functions under these two departments, as of 26 September 1985.

The current HRD minister is Ramesh Pokhriyal, a member of the Council of Ministers.


Key Description of MHRD:

Jurisdiction India: Republic of India

Headquarters: Shastri Bhawan, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, New Delhi

Annual Budget: ₹99,312 crore (US$14 billion) (2020-21 est.)

Minister Responsible: Ramesh Pokhriyal 'Nishank', Cabinet Minister

Deputy Minister: responsible Sanjay Shamrao Dhotre, Minister of State

Ministry Executives: R. Subrahmanyam, (IAS Officer), Rina Ray, (IAS Officer)

Child Agencies: Department of School Education and Literacy

Department of Higher Education

Website: Link

Social Network: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube


Department of School Education and Literacy in MHRD

The Department of School Education and Literacy is responsible for development of school education and literacy in the country. It works on "universalisation of education" and for the cultivation of higher standards for citizenship among the youth of India.



Department of Higher Education in MHRD

The Department of Higher Education is in charge of secondary and post-secondary education.

The department is empowered to grant deemed university status to educational institutions on the advice of the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India, under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.

The Department of Higher Education takes care of one of the largest higher education systems of the world, just after the United States and China.

The department is engaged in bringing world-class opportunities of higher education and research to the country so that Indian students are not found lacking when facing an international platform.

For this, the government has launched joint ventures and signed MoUs to help the Indian student benefit from the world opinion. The technical education system in the country can be broadly classified into three categories

The 122 Centrally funded institution of technical and science education are as under: List of CFTIs (Centrally Funded Technical Institutions): IIITs (5 – Allahabad, Gwalior, Jabalpur,Kurnool, Kancheepuram), IITs (23), IIMs (20), IISc, IISER (5), NITs (31), NITTTRs (4), and 9 others (SPA, ISMU, NERIST, SLIET, IIEST, NITIE & NIFFT, CIT)


Organisational Structure:

The department is divided into eight bureaus, and most of the work of the department is handled through over 100 autonomous organisations under these bureaus.

  • University and Higher Education; Minorities Education
  • University Grants Commission (UGC)
  • Education Research and Development Organisation (ERDO)
  • Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
  • Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)
  • Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)
  • 46 Central Universities as on 11.09.2015, list issued by University Grants Commission
  • Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS), Shimla


Technical Education:

  • All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)
  • Council of Architecture (COA)
  • 5 Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) (Allahabad, Gwalior,
  • Jabalpur, Kancheepuram and Kurnool )
  • 3 School of Planning and Architecture (SPAs)
  • 23 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
  • 7 Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs)
  • 20 Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs)
  • 31 National Institutes of Technology (NITs)
  • Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (IIEST)
  • Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology
  • North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST)
  • National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE)
  • 4 National Institutes of Technical Teachers' Training & Research (NITTTRs) (Bhopal, Chandigarh, Chennai and Kolkata)
  • Ghani Khan Choudhury Institute of Engineering & Technology (GKCIET)
  • 4 Regional Boards of Apprenticeship / Practical Training


Administration and Languages:

  • Three Deemed Universities in the field of Sanskrit, viz.
  • Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (RSkS) in New Delhi,
  • Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (SLBSRSV) New Delhi,
  • Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (RSV) Tirupati
  • Kendriya Hindi Sansthan (KHS), Agra
  • English and Foreign Language University (EFLU), Hyderabad
  • National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL)
  • National Council for Promotion of Sindhi Language (NCPSL)
  • Three subordinate offices: Central Hindi Directorate (CHD), New Delhi;
  • Commission for Scientific & Technological Terminology (CSTT), New Delhi; and Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore


Distance Education and Scholarships

  • Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)

UNESCO, International Cooperation, Book Promotion and Copyrights,

Education Policy, Planning and Monitoring

Integrated Finance Division.

Statistics, Annual Plan and CMIS

Administrative Reform, North Eastern Region, SC/ST/OBC



  • National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA)
  • National Book Trust (NBT)
  • National Board of Accreditation (NBA)
  • National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (NCMEI)
  • National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
  • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS)
  • Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS)
  • National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
  • Central Tibetan Administration (CTA)
  • National Foundation for Teachers' Welfare a public sector enterprise,
  • Educational Consultants (India) Limited (EdCIL)
  • Central Tibetan Administration,(Bureau of HH the Dalai Lama),(Lajpat nagar),Delhi
  • National Open School Institute (NosI)
  • National Backward Krishi Vidyapeeth Solapur in India (Nbk)
  • Joint Seat Allocation Authority (JOSAA)



The main objectives of the Ministry are:

  • Formulating the National Policy on Education and to ensure that it is implemented in letter and spirit
  • Planned development, including expanding access and improving quality of the educational institutions throughout the country, including in regions where people do not have easy access to education.
  • Paying special attention to disadvantaged groups like the poor, females and the minorities
  • Provide financial help in the form of scholarships, loan subsidy, etc. to deserving students from deprived sections of the society.
  • Encouraging international cooperation in the field of education, including working closely with the UNESCO and foreign governments as well as Universities, to enhance the educational opportunities in the country.


National Institutional Ranking Framework

In April 2016, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) published the first list of rankings of Indian colleges under National Institutional Ranking Framework.

The entire ranking exercise involved NBA, All India Council for Technical Education, UGC, Thomson Reuters, Elsevier and INFLIBNET (Information & Library Network) centre.

The ranking framework was launched in September 2015. All 122 centrally-funded institutions – including all central universities, IITs and IIMs – participated in the first round of ranking.

List of Institutes Funded by the Central Government of India

List of institutes funded by the Central Government of India

National institutes or central institutes are institutes established by the Government of India and supported by national agencies such as CSIR,ESIC, ICAR, MoHFW, DBT DST, ICMR, DAE, MHRD etc. including the prestigious Institutes of National Importance.

List of institutes funded

Listed below are some of the centrally-funded institutes along with their location. Number of Institutes increased in each category of CFTI, NIT, IIIT and IIT institutes.


List of institutes Funded 2020


Institute Location
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)
  • New Delhi
  • Bhopal
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Jodhpur
  • Patna
  • Raipur
  • Rishikesh
  • Bilaspur
All India Institute of Speech and Hearing (AIISH)
  • Mysore
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES)
  • Nainital
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany
  • Lucknow
Bose Institute
  • Kolkata
Central Drug Research Institute
  • Lucknow
Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS)
  • Delhi
Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute
  • Pilani
Central Food Technological Research Institute
  • Mysore
Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI)
  • Kolkata
Central Institute for Cotton Research
  • Nagpur
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
  • Bhopal
Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture
  • Chennai
Central Institute of Educational Technology
  • New Delhi
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
  • Mumbai
Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET)
  • Cochin
Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture
  • Bhubaneswar
Central Institute of Indian Languages
  • Mysore
Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology
  • Chennai
Central Institute of Psychiatry
  • Ranchi
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  • Lucknow
Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT)
  • Pune
Central Leather Research Institute
  • Adyar
  • Chennai
Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar (CIT)
  • Kokrajhar
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited
  • Ranchi
Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture
  • Hyderabad
Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
  • Avikanagar
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
  • New Delhi
Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT)
  • New Delhi
Centre for Development Studies
  • Thiruvanathapuram
Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences
  • Mumbai
College of Defence Management
  • Secunderabad
ESIC Medical College, Gulbarga
  • Gulbarga
Film and Television Institute of India
  • Pune
Foreign Service Institute
  • New Delhi
Harcourt Butler Technological Institute
  • Kanpur
Harish Chandra Research Institute (HRI)
  • Allahabad
Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
  • New Delhi
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS)
  • Kolkata
Indian Diamond Institute
  • Surat
Indian Institute of Architects
  • Mumbai
Indian Institute of Astrophysics
  • Bangalore
Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB)
  • Kolkata
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
  • Hyderabad
Indian Institute of Coal Management
  • Ranchi
Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment
  • New Delhi
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST)
  • Shibpur
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT)
  • New Delhi
  • Kolkata
Indian Institute of Forest Management (IIFM)
  • Bhopal
Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT)
  • Gwalior
  • Allahabad
  • Dharwad
  • Jabalpur
  • Kanchipuram
  • Kottayam
  • Kurnool
  • Guwahati
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Nagpur
  • Bhopal
Indian Institute of Management
  • Amritsar
  • Ahmedabad
  • Bangalore
  • Calcutta
  • Lucknow
  • Kozhikode
  • Indore
  • Shillong
  • Kashipur
  • Raipur
  • Ranchi
  • Rohtak
  • Trichy
  • Udaipur
  • Visakhapatnam
  • Sambalpur
  • Nagpur
Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management
  • Gwalior
Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC)
  • Aizawl
  • Amravati
  • Dhenkanal
  • Jammu
  • Kottayam
  • New Delhi
Indian Institute of Petroleum
  • Dehradun
Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy
  • Visakhapatnam
Indian Institute of Plantation Management
  • Bangalore
Indian Institute of Pulses Research
  • Kanpur
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)
  • Dehradun
Indian Institute of Science (IISc)
  • Bangalore
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER)
  • Kolkata
  • Pune
  • Mohali
  • Bhopal
  • Thiruvanathapuram
  • Tirupati, Berhampur
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management
  • Kolkata
Indian Institute of Soil Science
  • Bhopal
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST)
  • Thiruvanathapuram
Indian Institute of Spices Research
  • Calicut
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
  • Kharagpur
  • Kanpur
  • Bombay
  • Chennai
  • Delhi
  • (ISM) Dhanbad
  • Dharwad
  • Guwahati
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Roorkee
  • Ropar
  • Hyderabad
  • Gandhinagar
  • Jodhpur
  • Patna
  • Mandi
  • Indore
  • Tirupati
  • (BHU) Varanasi
  • Tirupati
  • Palakkad
  • Goa
  • Bhilai
  • Jammu
Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management
  • Gwalior
  • Nellore
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Noida
  • Goa
  • Bodh Gaya (Camp)
  • Shillong (Camp)
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  • Pune
Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums (Indian Lac Research Institute)
  • Ranchi
Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services
  • Hyderabad
Indian Maritime University
  • Chennai
  • Mumbai
  • Kolkota
  • Kochi
  • Visakhapatnam
Indian Statistical Institute
  • Bangalore
  • Chennai
  • Kolkata
  • Delhi
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
  • Bareilly
Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research
  • Mumbai
Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR)
  • Kalpakkam
Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy (IGNFA)
  • Dehradun
Institute for Plasma Research (IPR)
  • Gandhinagar
Institute for Studies in Industrial Development
  • New Delhi
Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses
  • New Delhi
Institute of Economic Growth
  • New Delhi
Institute of Food Security
  • Gurgaon
Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB)
  • New Delhi
Institute of Hotel Management (IHM)
  • Delhi
  • Mumbai
  • Kolkata
  • Chennai
  • Bhubaneshwar
  • Goa
  • Jaipur
  • Shillong
  • Shimla
  • Guwahati
Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc)
  • Chennai
Institute of Physics
  • Bhubaneswar
Institute of Rural Management
  • Anand
Institute of Secretariat Training and Management
  • New Delhi
Institute for Studies in Industrial Development
  • New Delhi
International Institute for Population Sciences
  • Mumbai
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR)
  • Bangalore
King Institute of Preventive Medicine and Research
  • Chennai
Lakshmibai National University of Physical Education (LNIPE)
  • Gwalior
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies
  • Kolkata
Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga
  • New Delhi
National Academy of Agricultural Research Management
  • Rajendranagar
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • New Delhi
National Academy of Construction
  • Hyderabad
National Academy of Customs Excise and Narcotics (NACEN)
  • Kolkata
  • Hindupur
National Academy of Defence Production
  • Nagpur
National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI)
  • Lucknow
National Brain Research Centre (NBRC)
  • Manesar
National Civil Defence College
  • Nagpur
National Dairy Research Institute
  • Karnal (Haryana)
National Defence College of India
  • Delhi
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
  • Nagpur
National Institute for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  • Hyderabad
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management
  • Hyderabad
National Institute of Agricultural Marketing
  • Jaipur
National Institute of Animal Welfare
  • Faridabad
National Institute of Construction Management and Research
  • Mumbai
National Institute of Design
  • Ahmedabad
  • Bangalore
  • Hyderabad
  • Kurukshetra
  • Jorhat
  • Bhopal
  • Vijayawada
National Institute of Disaster Management
  • New Delhi
National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT)
  • Ajmer
  • Agartala
  • Aizwal
  • Aurangabad
  • Calicut
  • Chennai
  • Chandigarh
  • Delhi
  • Gorakhpur
  • Gangtok
  • Guwahati
  • Imphal
  • Itanagar
  • Jammu
  • Kohima
  • Kolkata
  • Leh
  • Lucknow
  • Patna
  • Ranchi
  • Shillong
  • Srinagar
  • Tezpur
National Institute of Fashion Technology
  • Bangalore
  • Bhopal
  • Bhubaneswar
  • Chennai
  • Gandhinagar
  • Hyderabad
  • Jodhpur
  • Kangra
  • Kannur
  • Kolkata
  • Mumbai
  • Patna
  • Raebareli
  • Shillong
National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology(NIFFT)
  • Ranchi
National Institute of Homoeopathy
  • Kolkata
National Institute of Hydrology
  • Belgaum
  • Roorkee
National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE)
  • Mumbai
National Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST)
  • Thiruvanathapuram
National Institute of Malaria Research
  • Delhi
  • Haridwar
  • Guwahati
  • Nadiad
  • Raipur
  • Ranchi
  • Rourkela
  • Goa
  • Bangaluru
  • Chennai
National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS)
  • Bangalore
National Institute of Nutrition
  • Hyderabad
National Institute of Open Schooling
  • Noida
National Institute of Oceanography (NIO)
  • Goa
  • Kochi
  • Mumbai
  • Visakhapatnam
National Institute of Ocean Technology
  • Chennai
  • Nellore
National Institute of Public Finance and Policy
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
  • Mohali
  • Ahmedabad
  • Raebareli
  • Hyderabad
  • Guwahati
  • Hajipur
  • Kolkata
National Institute of Rural Development
  • Hyderabad
National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR)
  • New Delhi
National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources
  • Delhi
National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER)
  • Bhubaneswar
National Institute of Securities Markets (NISM)
  • Navi Mumbai
National Institute Of Technical Teachers Training and Research
  • Bhopal
  • Chandigarh
  • Chennai
  • Kolkata
National Institute of Technology
  • Agartala
  • Aizawl
  • Allahabad
  • Bhopal
  • Dimapur Nagaland
  • Durgapur
  • Goa
  • Hamirpur
  • Imphal
  • Jaipur
  • Jalandhar
  • Jamshedpur
  • Karaikal
  • Calicut
  • Kurukshetra
  • Nagpur
  • New Delhi
  • Patna
  • Raipur
  • Sikkim
  • Rourkela
  • Shillong
  • Silchar
  • Srinagar
  • Surat
  • Surathkal
  • Trichy
  • Tadepalligudem
  • Warangal
  • Yupia
National Institute of Urban Affairs
  • New Delhi
National Institute of Water Sports
  • Goa
National Museum Institute of the History of Art, Conservation and Museology (NMIHACM)
  • New Delhi
National Power Training Institute
  • Faridabad
National Sugar Institute
  • Kanpur
National Tuberculosis Institute
  • Bangalore
National Institute of Homoeopathy (NIH)
  • Kolkata
Netaji Subhas National Institute of Sports (NSNIS)
  • Patiala
North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST)
  • Itanagar
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
  • Ahmedabad
PEC University of Technology (PEC)
  • Chandigarh
Raman Research Institute (RRI)
  • Bangalore
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology
  • Rae Bareli
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
  • Kolkata
Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Lucknow
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology(SLIET)
  • Sangrur
Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute
  • Kolkata
S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences (SNBNCBS)
  • Kolkata
School of Planning and Architecture
  • Vijayawada
  • Bhopal
  • Delhi
Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences
  • Srinagar
State Institute of Public Administration and Rural Development
  • Agartala
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)
  • Mumbai
  • Hyderabad
Tata Institute of Social Sciences
  • Mumbai
  • Hyderabad
  • Guwahati
  • Tuljapur
Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Intellectual Property Management
  • Nagpur
V. V. Giri National Labour Institute
  • New Delhi
Variable Energy Cyclotron Center
  • Kolkata


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Government of India (GOI) – Details of Indian Structure

The Government of India, often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of twenty eight states and nine union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.

Government of India (GOI)


Key Description of Government of India (GOI):

Formation: 26 January 1950; 70 years ago

Country: Republic of India


Seat: Rashtrapati Bhavan (Official Residence of the President of India.)

Legislature: Parliament

Upper House: Rajya Sabha

Leader Chairman (Venkaiah Naidu)

Lower House: Lok Sabha

Leader Speaker: (Om Birla)

Meeting Place: Sansad Bhavan

Head of State President: Ramnath Kovind

Head of Government: Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Main Organ: Cabinet

Head of civil Services: Cabinet secretary (Rajiv Gauba, IAS)

Meeting Place: Central Secretariat

Ministries: 57

Responsible to: Lok Sabha


Executive of Government of India (GOI):

The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers.

President: The executive power is vested mainly in the president of India, as per Article 53(1) of the constitution. The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through subordinate officers as per the aforesaid Article 53(1). The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India.

Vice President: The vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president.

The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president.

The vice president also has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot conducted by the election commission.

Prime Minister: The Prime Minister of India, as addressed in the Constitution of India, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the president, head of the council of ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India.

The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing a proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the prime minister dissolves the cabinet.

The prime minister is appointed by the president to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive.

Cabinet, Ministries And Agencies: The Cabinet of India includes the prime minister and cabinet ministers. Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament.

The cabinet is headed by the prime minister, and is advised by the cabinet secretary, who also acts as the head of the Indian Administrative Service and other civil services.

Other ministers are either as union cabinet ministers, who are heads of the various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state (independent charges), who do not report to a cabinet minister.

As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member.

Secretaries: A secretary to the Government of India, a civil servant, generally an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer, is the administrative head of the ministry or department, and is the principal adviser to the minister on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry/department. Secretaries to the Government of India rank 23rd on Indian order of precedence.

Secretaries at the higher level are assisted by one or many additional secretaries, who are further assisted by joint secretaries.

At the middle they are assisted by directors/deputy secretaries and under secretaries. At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff.


Ministries and departments of the Government of India:


Ministry Department(s)
President's Secretariat
Vice President's Secretariat
Prime Minister's Office Atomic Energy
Cabinet Secretariat
Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare
Agricultural Research and Education
Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries
Chemicals and Fertilizers Chemicals and Petrochemicals
Civil Aviation
Commerce and Industry Commerce
Industrial Policy and Promotion
Communications Posts
Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution Consumer Affairs
Food and Public Distribution
Corporate Affairs
Defence Defence
Defence Production
Defence Research and Development
Ex-servicemen Welfare
Development of North Eastern Region
Drinking Water and Sanitation
Earth Sciences
Electronics and Information Technology
Environment, Forest and Climate Change
External Affairs
Finance Economic Affairs
Financial Services
Investment and Public Asset Management
Food Processing Industries
Health and Family Welfare Health and Family Welfare
Health Research
Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Heavy Industry
Public Enterprises
Home Affairs Border Management
Internal Security
Jammu Kashmir Affairs
Official Language
Housing and Urban Affairs
Human Resource Development Higher Education
School Education and Literacy
Information and Broadcasting
Labour and Employment
Law and Justice Justice
Legal Affairs
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
Minority Affairs
New and Renewable Energy
NITI Aayog
Panchayati Raj
Parliamentary Affairs
Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Personnel and Training
Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
Pension and Pensioners' Welfare
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Road Transport and Highways
Rural Development Land Resources
Rural Development
Science and Technology Biotechnology
Science and Technology
Scientific and Industrial Research
Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
Social Justice and Empowerment Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities
Social Justice and Empowerment
Statistics and Programme Implementation
Tribal Affairs
Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation
Women and Child Development
Youth Affairs and Sports Sports
Youth Affairs
Ministries Departments
58 93


Civil services:

The Civil Services of India are the civil services and the permanent bureaucracy of India. The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants.

In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers.

These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage.

The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration.

Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it.


Cabinet Secretary:

The cabinet secretary (IAST: Maṃtrimaṇḍala Saciva) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India.

The cabinet secretary is the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government.

The cabinet secretary is generally the senior-most officer of the Indian Administrative Service. The cabinet secretary ranks 11th on the Indian order of precedence.

The cabinet secretary is under the direct charge of the prime minister.


Elections And Voting:

India has a quasi-federal form of government, called "union" or "central" government, with elected officials at the union, state and local levels. At the national level, the head of government, the prime minister, is appointed by the president of India from the party or coalition that has the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha.

The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected for a term of five years by universal adult suffrage through a first-past-the-post voting system.

Members of the Rajya Sabha, which represents the states, are elected by the members of State legislative assemblies by proportional representation, except for 12 members who are nominated by the president.

India is currently the largest democracy in the world, with around 900 million eligible voters, as of 2019.



State and Local Governments:

State governments in India are the governments ruling states of India and the chief minister heads the state government.

Power is divided between union government and state governments.

State government's legislature is bicameral in 5 states and unicameral in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6-year term.

Local government function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments.

It consists of panchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.



Union Budget:

The Finance minister of India usually presents the annual union budget in the parliament on the last working day of February.

However, for the F.Y. 2017–18, this tradition had been changed. Now budget will be presented on the 1st day of February. The budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of India's fiscal year.

The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year

India's non-development revenue expenditure had increased nearly five-fold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986.

Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non-development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget.

Defense expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing because of India's desire to project its military prowess beyond South Asia. In 2007, India's defense spending stood at US$26.5 billion.


Indian Order of Precedence: Republic of India is The Protocol List

Indian order of precedence
Indian Protocol List


Indian order of Precedence: The order is established by the President of India, through the President's Secretariat and is maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs. It is only used to indicate ceremonial protocol and has no legal standing and does not reflect the Indian presidential line of succession or the co-equal status of the separation of powers under the constitution. It is not applicable for the day-to-day functioning of the Government of India.


                                    Indian Order of Precedence List
Rank Persons
1 President (Ram Nath Kovind)
2 Vice President (Venkaiah Naidu)
3 Prime Minister (Narendra Modi)
4 Governors of states (within their respective states)
5 Former Presidents (Pratibha Patil, Pranab Mukherjee)
  • Chief Justice (Sharad Arvind Bobde)
  • Speaker of the Lok Sabha (Om Birla)
  • Cabinet ministers of the Government of India
  • Chief ministers of states (within their respective states)
  • Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission (position no longer exists, replaced by Niti Aayog)
  • Former Prime Ministers (H. D. Deve Gowda, Manmohan Singh)
  • Leaders of the opposition in the Rajya Sabha (Ghulam Nabi Azad) and the Lok Sabha (Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury)
  • Holders of the Bharat Ratna (Amartya Sen, Lata Mangeshkar, C. N. R. Rao, Sachin Tendulkar)
  • Ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary and the high commissioners of Commonwealth countries accredited to India
  • Chief ministers of states (when outside their respective states)
  • Governors of states (when outside their respective states)
9 Judges of the Supreme Court of India
  • Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission (Arvind Saxena)
  • Chief Election Commissioner (Sunil Arora)
  • Comptroller and Auditor General (Rajiv Mehrishi)
  • Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Harivansh Narayan Singh)
  • Deputy chief ministers of states
  • Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha (vacant)
  • Members of the Planning Commission (position no longer exists)
  • Ministers of states of the Union
  • Lieutenant Governors of union territories (within their respective union territories)
  • Attorney General (K. K. Venugopal)
  • Cabinet Secretary (Rajiv Gauba)
12 Chiefs of staff holding the rank of full General or equivalent rank

  • Chief of Defence Staff (General Bipin Rawat)
  • Chief of the Army Staff (General Manoj Mukund Naravane)
  • Chief of the Air Staff (Air Chief Marshal Rakesh Kumar Singh Bhadauria)
  • Chief of the Naval Staff (Admiral Karambir Singh)
13 Envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary accredited to India
  • Chief justices of high courts
  • Chairmen and speakers of state legislatures (within their respective states)
  • Chief ministers of union territories (within their respective union territories)
  • Cabinet ministers in states (within their respective states)
  • Chief Executive Councillor of Delhi (within their respective union territories) (position no longer exists)[b]
  • Deputy ministers of the union
16 Officiating chiefs of staff holding the rank of lieutenant general or equivalent rank
  • Judges of high courts
  • Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal
  • Chairman, Minorities Commission
  • Chairman, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission
  • Cabinet ministers in states (outside their respective states)
  • Chairmen and speakers of state legislatures (outside their respective states)
  • Chairman of Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (position no longer exists)
  • Deputy chairmen and deputy speakers of state legislatures (within their respective states)
  • Ministers of state in states (within their respective states)
  • Ministers of union territories and executive councillors of Delhi (within their respective union territories)
  • Speakers of legislative assemblies in union territories
  • Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council (within their respective union territories) (position no longer exists)
  • Chief commissioners of union territories not having a council of ministers (within their respective union territories)
  • Deputy ministers in states (within their respective states)
  • Deputy speakers of legislative assemblies in union territories
  • Deputy chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council (within their respective union territories)
  • Deputy chairmen and deputy speakers of state legislatures (outside their respective states)
  • Ministers of state in states (outside their respective state)
21 Members of Parliament
22 Deputy ministers in states (outside their respective states)
  • Secretaries to the Government of India
  • Officers of the rank of full general or equivalent rank in the Indian Armed Forces
  • Army commanders/Vice Chief of the Army Staff or equivalent in other services
  • Chief secretaries to state Governments (within their respective states)
  • Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities
  • Commissioner for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  • Members, Minorities Commission
  • Members, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission
  • Secretary, Minorities Commission
  • Secretary, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Commission
  • Secretary to the President
  • Secretary to the Prime Minister
  • Secretary, Rajya Sabha/Lok Sabha
  • Solicitor General (Tushar Mehta)
  • Vice-Chairman of the Central Administrative Tribunal
  • Lieutenant generals of the Indian Army
  • Air marshals of the Indian Air Force
  • Vice admirals of the Indian Navy
  • Additional secretaries to Government of India
  • Advocates general of states
  • Additional solicitors general
  • Chairman, Tariff Commission
  • Chargé d'affaires and acting high commissioners a pied and ad. interim.
  • Chief ministers of union territories (outside their respective union territories)
  • Chief Executive Councillor of Delhi (outside their respective union territories) (position no longer exists)[b]
  • Chief secretaries of state governments (outside their respective states)
  • Deputy comptrollers and auditors general
  • Deputy speakers of legislative assemblies in union territories
  • Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council (outside their respective union territories) (position no longer exists)
  • Deputy Chairman of Delhi Metropolitan Council (outside their respective union territories) (position no longer exists)[b]
  • Director of the Intelligence Bureau (Rajiv Jain)
  • Director, Central Bureau of Investigation
  • Director General, Border Security Force
  • Director General, Central Reserve Police Force
  • Lieutenants governor of union territories (outside their respective union territories)
  • Members, Central Administrative Tribunal
  • Members, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (position no longer exists)[c]
  • Members of the Union Public Service Commission
  • Ministers of union territories and executives councillors of Delhi (position no longer exists)[b]
  • Principal staff officers of the Armed Forces of the rank of major general or equivalent rank
  • Speakers of legislative assemblies in union territories
  • Joint secretaries to the Government of India
  • Major generals of the Indian Army
  • Rear admirals of the Indian Navy
  • Air vice marshals of the Indian Air Force



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Why Make in India Has Failed? Plan, Features

25 सितंबर 2014 को, भारत सरकार ने भारत में विनिर्माण (Make in India) को प्रोत्साहित करने और विनिर्माण और सेवाओं में समर्पित निवेशों के साथ अर्थव्यवस्था को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए India मेक इन इंडिया ’पहल की घोषणा की। लॉन्च के तुरंत बाद, करोड़ों की निवेश प्रतिबद्धताओं की घोषणा की गई थी। 2015 में, अमेरिका और चीन को पछाड़कर भारत प्रत्यक्ष विदेशी निवेश के लिए शीर्ष स्थान के रूप में उभरा। राष्ट्रीय कार्यक्रम के अनुरूप, राज्यों ने भी अपनी पहल शुरू की। पांच साल बाद, जैसा कि हम एक और केंद्रीय बजट के लिए झुकते हैं, यह सामान्य रूप से अर्थव्यवस्था के रूप में बहुप्रचारित पहल का जायजा लेने के लिए उपयुक्त होगा, और विशेष रूप से विनिर्माण क्षेत्र एक फिसलन ढलान पर है।

India मेक इन इंडिया ’का विचार नया नहीं है। कारखाने का उत्पादन देश में एक लंबा इतिहास रहा है। हालाँकि, इस पहल ने भारत को वैश्विक विनिर्माण केंद्र बनाने का एक महत्वाकांक्षी लक्ष्य निर्धारित किया। इस लक्ष्य को प्राप्त करने के लिए, लक्ष्यों की पहचान की गई और नीतियों की रूपरेखा तैयार की गई। तीन प्रमुख उद्देश्य थे: (ए) अर्थव्यवस्था में क्षेत्र की हिस्सेदारी बढ़ाने के लिए विनिर्माण क्षेत्र की विकास दर को 12-14% प्रति वर्ष तक बढ़ाना; (बी) 2022 तक अर्थव्यवस्था में 100 मिलियन अतिरिक्त विनिर्माण नौकरियों का सृजन करना; और (ग) यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए कि विनिर्माण क्षेत्र का सकल घरेलू उत्पाद में योगदान 2022 तक बढ़ाकर 2022 (संशोधित 2025) वर्तमान 16% हो जाएगा। नीति का दृष्टिकोण निवेश के लिए अनुकूल वातावरण बनाना, आधुनिक और कुशल बुनियादी ढाँचे का विकास करना और विदेशी पूंजी के लिए नए क्षेत्रों को खोलना था।

Designed to fail? - विफल करने के लिए डिज़ाइन किया गया?

यह देखते हुए कि such मेक इन इंडिया ’जैसी भव्य पहलों के लिए बड़ी टिकट परियोजनाओं में लंबी अवधि के अंतराल और अंतराल प्रभाव होते हैं, ऐसी पहल का आकलन समय से पहले किया जा सकता है। साथ ही, सरकारें अक्सर व्यापक आर्थिक समस्याओं से त्रस्त अर्थव्यवस्था के उत्तराधिकार के बहाने का उपयोग करती हैं, और चीजों को सही करने के लिए अधिक समय की मांग करती हैं। यह एक तर्क है कि वर्तमान सरकार अक्सर आक्रमण करती है। हालांकि, परिणामों की दिशा और परिमाण का आकलन करने के लिए पांच साल एक उचित समय अवधि है। चूंकि नीतिगत बदलावों का उद्देश्य विनिर्माण क्षेत्र के तीन प्रमुख चर - निवेश, उत्पादन और रोजगार में वृद्धि की शुरूआत करना था - इनकी एक परीक्षा से हमें नीति की सफलता का पता लगाने में मदद मिलेगी।

पिछले पांच वर्षों में अर्थव्यवस्था में निवेश की धीमी वृद्धि देखी गई। यह तब और अधिक है जब हम विनिर्माण क्षेत्र में पूंजी निवेश पर विचार करते हैं। निजी क्षेत्र की सकल निश्चित पूंजी निर्माण, कुल निवेश का एक उपाय, 2017-18 में सकल घरेलू उत्पाद का 28.6% घटकर 2013-14 में 31.3% था (आर्थिक सर्वेक्षण 2018-19)। दिलचस्प बात यह है कि इस दौरान सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र की हिस्सेदारी कमोबेश यही रही, निजी क्षेत्र की हिस्सेदारी 24.2% से घटकर 21.5% रह गई। इस समस्या के हिस्से को अर्थव्यवस्था में बचत दर में गिरावट के लिए जिम्मेदार ठहराया जा सकता है। घरेलू बचत में गिरावट आई है, जबकि निजी कॉर्पोरेट क्षेत्र की बचत में वृद्धि हुई है। इस प्रकार हम एक ऐसा परिदृश्य पाते हैं जहाँ निजी क्षेत्र की बचत में वृद्धि हुई है, लेकिन एक अच्छा निवेश माहौल प्रदान करने के लिए नीतिगत उपायों के बावजूद निवेश में कमी आई है।

उत्पादन वृद्धि के संबंध में, हम पाते हैं कि विनिर्माण से संबंधित औद्योगिक उत्पादन के मासिक सूचकांक में अप्रैल 2012 से नवंबर 2019 की अवधि के दौरान केवल दो बार ही दोहरे अंकों में वृद्धि दर दर्ज की गई है। वास्तव में, आंकड़े बताते हैं कि अधिकांश महीनों के लिए , यह 3% या उससे कम था और कुछ महीनों के लिए नकारात्मक भी था। कहने की जरूरत नहीं है कि नकारात्मक विकास से तात्पर्य क्षेत्र के संकुचन से है। इस प्रकार, हम स्पष्ट रूप से विकास के आने का इंतजार कर रहे हैं।

रोजगार वृद्धि के संबंध में, हमने मौजूदा डेटा संग्रहण तंत्र को संशोधित करने के प्रयासों के साथ-साथ डेटा जारी करने में सरकार की देरी पर भी सवाल उठाए हैं। बहस का मुद्दा यह है कि रोजगार, विशेष रूप से औद्योगिक रोजगार, श्रम बाजार में नई प्रविष्टियों की दर के साथ तालमेल रखने के लिए नहीं बढ़ा है।

इस प्रकार तीनों गणनाओं में, 'मेक इन इंडिया' विफल रहा है।

Why Make in India Failed


Policy casualness - नीति आकस्मिकता

पिछली सरकारों पर नीतिगत पक्षाघात का आरोप लगाते हुए, एनडीए सरकार ने आकर्षक नारों के साथ नीतियों की एक निंदा की घोषणा की। यह कभी न खत्म होने वाली योजना की घोषणाओं के युग के रूप में हुआ है। ‘मेक इन इंडिया’ announce स्कीम ’की घोषणाओं की सतत धारा का एक अच्छा उदाहरण है। घोषणाओं के दो प्रमुख लक्ष्य थे। सबसे पहले, इन योजनाओं के थोक उत्पादन के लिए निवेश और वैश्विक बाजारों के लिए विदेशी पूंजी पर बहुत अधिक निर्भर करता था। इसने एक इनबिल्ट अनिश्चितता पैदा की, क्योंकि घरेलू उत्पादन की योजना कहीं और मांग और आपूर्ति की स्थिति के अनुसार बनाई जानी थी। दूसरे, नीति निर्माताओं ने अर्थव्यवस्था में तीसरे घाटे की उपेक्षा की, जो कि कार्यान्वयन है। जबकि अर्थशास्त्री ज्यादातर बजट और राजकोषीय घाटे के बारे में चिंता करते हैं, नीति कार्यान्वयनकर्ताओं को अपने निर्णयों में कार्यान्वयन घाटे के निहितार्थों को ध्यान में रखना चाहिए। इस तरह की नीति निरीक्षण का परिणाम भारत में बड़ी संख्या में रुकी हुई परियोजनाओं में स्पष्ट है। उन्हें लागू करने के लिए तैयारियों के बिना नीति घोषणाओं का स्थान 'नीति आकस्मिकता' है। ‘मेक इन इंडिया’ को बड़ी संख्या में कम-तैयार पहलों से ग्रस्त किया गया है।

एक सवाल जो जवाब देता है, वह यह है कि India मेक इन इंडिया ’विफल क्यों हुआ? इसके तीन कारण हैं। सबसे पहले, इसने विनिर्माण क्षेत्र को प्राप्त करने के लिए बहुत महत्वाकांक्षी विकास दर निर्धारित की। 12-14% की वार्षिक वृद्धि दर औद्योगिक क्षेत्र की क्षमता से परे है। ऐतिहासिक रूप से भारत ने इसे हासिल नहीं किया है और इस तरह की क्वांटम कूद के लिए क्षमताओं का निर्माण करने की उम्मीद करना शायद सरकार की कार्यान्वयन क्षमता का एक बहुत बड़ा आधार है। दूसरा, इस पहल ने कई क्षेत्रों को अपनी तह में लाया। इससे नीतिगत फ़ोकस का नुकसान हुआ। इसके अलावा, इसे घरेलू अर्थव्यवस्था के तुलनात्मक लाभों की किसी भी समझ से रहित नीति के रूप में देखा गया। तीसरा, वैश्विक अर्थव्यवस्था की अनिश्चितता और कभी बढ़ती व्यापार संरक्षणवाद को देखते हुए, पहल शानदार रूप से बीमार थी।

‘मेक इन इंडिया’ एक नीतिगत पहल है जिसमें इनबिल्ट विसंगतियां हैं। विरोधाभासों का बंडल तब सामने आता है जब हम विदेशी पूंजी के साथ किए जा रहे hi स्वदेशी ’उत्पादों की असंगति की जांच करते हैं। इसने एक ऐसे परिदृश्य को जन्म दिया है, जहां to व्यापार करने में आसानी ’की मात्रा में उछाल है, लेकिन निवेश अभी भी आने बाकी हैं। विनिर्माण गतिविधि को बढ़ाने के लिए अर्थव्यवस्था को पॉलिसी विंडो ड्रेसिंग की तुलना में बहुत अधिक की आवश्यकता है। सरकार को यह महसूस करना चाहिए कि संसद में बिलों की एक श्रृंखला और निवेशकों की बैठक की मेजबानी से औद्योगीकरण को शुरू नहीं किया जा सकता है।

Analysis on Make in India Plan

What Modi ji did for “MAKE IN INDIA” campaign?

  • Marketing
  • Marketing
  • Marketing
  • GST ( After almost 2 year of MII launch )
  • No labour reforms (Till yet)
  • No Tax reforms ( GST is so called tax reforms, where a business men has to fill 37 forms annually. 3 monthly forms ( 3×12=36 ) and one annual form, making it total 37 forms.
  • FDI relaxation with no limits. Yet there are limits in some sector.
  • Boast to entrepreneurship (One time only).


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