Communist Party of India (CPI): History, Latest News 2020

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist political party in India, and one of the eight national parties in the country.

There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist), also a national party, separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1920. The party remains committed to Marxism–Leninism.

Communist Party of India (CPI)
Communist Party of India (CPI) - Logo


Key Description of Communist Party of India:

Abbreviation: CPI

General Secretary D. Raja

Lok Sabha :eader: K. Subbarayan

Rajya Sabha Leader Binoy Viswam


  • S. V. Ghate
  • M. Singaravelu
  • K.N. Joglekar
  • Hasrat Mohani
  • Muzaffar Ahmed
  • Ayodhya Prasad

Founded: 26 December 1925 (94 years ago) at Cawnpore, United Province, British Raj (presently Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India)

Headquarters: Ajoy Bhavan, 15, Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi, India-110002

Student Wing: All India Students Federation

Youth Wing: All India Youth Federation

Women's Wing: National Federation of Indian Women

Labour Wing:

  • All India Trade Union Congress
  • Bharatiya Khet Mazdoor Union

Peasant's Wing: All India Kisan Sabha

  • Ideology Communism
  • Marxism–Leninism
  • Socialism
  • Secularism

Political Position: Left-wing

International Affiliation: International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties

ECI Status: National Party


  • Democratic Progressive Alliance (Tamil Nadu)
  • Left Front, Tripura (Tripura)
  • Left Front, West Bengal (West Bengal)
  • Left Democratic Front, Kerala (Kerala)
  • Left Democratic Front, Maharashtra (Maharashtra)
  • Left Democratic Manch (Assam)
  • Punjab Democratic Alliance (Punjab)

Seats in Lok Sabha: 2 / 543

Seats in Rajya Sabha: 1 / 245


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History of Communist Party of India:

The Communist Party of India has officially stated that it was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur, then Cawnpore. S.V. Ghate was the first General Secretary of CPI.

But as per the version of CPI (M), the Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 17 October 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International.

The founding members of the party were M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy (Roy's wife), Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof (Abani's wife), Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Hasrat Mohani, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M.P.T. Aacharya, and Sultan Ahmed Khan Tarin of North-West Frontier Province.

The CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of. contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed), Bombay (led by S.A. Dange), Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani) and Punjab and Sindh (led by Ghulam Hussain). However, only Usmani became a CPI party member



Present Situation:

CPI was recognized by the Election Commission of India as a 'National Party'. To date, CPI happens to be the only national political party from India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol.

Owing to a massive defeat in 2019 Indian general election where the party saw its tally reduce to 2 MP, the Election Commission of India has sent a letter to CPI asking for reasons why its national party status should not be revoked.

If similar performance is repeated in the next election, the CPI will no longer be a national party.

On the national level they supported the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government along with other parliamentary Left parties, but without taking part in it.

Upon attaining power in May 2004, the United Progressive Alliance formulated a programme of action known as the Common Minimum Programme.

The Left bases its support to the UPA on strict adherence to it. Provisions of the CMP mentioned to discontinue disinvestment, massive social sector outlays and an independent foreign policy.

On 8 July 2008, the General Secretary of CPI(M), Prakash Karat, announced that the Left was withdrawing its support over the decision by the government to go ahead with the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act.

The Left parties combination had been a staunch advocate of not proceeding with this deal citing national interests.

In West Bengal it participates in the Left Front. It also participated in the state government in Manipur.

In Kerala the party is part of Left Democratic Front. In Tripura the party is a partner of the Left Front, which governed the state till 2018.

In Tamil Nadu it is part of the Progressive Democratic Alliance. It is involved in the Left Democratic Front in Maharashtra

The current general secretary of CPI is D. Raja.



Lok Sabha Election Tally:


Lok Sabha Year Lok Sabha
Won Votes %
First 1952 489 49 16 3.29%
Second 1957 494 109 27 8.92%
Third 1962 494 137 29 9.94%
Fourth 1967 520 109 23 5.11%
Fifth 1971 518 87 23 4.73%
Sixth 1977 542 91 7 2.82%
Seventh 1980 529 ( 542* ) 47 10 2.49%
Eighth 1984 541 66 6 2.70%
Ninth 1989 529 50 12 2.57%
Tenth 1991 534 43 14 2.48%
Eleventh 1996 543 43 12 1.97%
Twelfth 1998 543 58 09 1.75%
Thirteenth 1999 543 54 04 1.48%
Fourteenth 2004 543 34 10 1.41%
Fifteenth 2009 543 56 04 1.43%
Sixteenth 2014 543 67 01 0.78%
Seventeenth 2019 543 02