The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist political party in India, and one of the eight national parties in the country.
There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist), also a national party, separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1920. The party remains committed to Marxism–Leninism.
Key Description of Communist Party of India:
General Secretary D. Raja
Lok Sabha :eader: K. Subbarayan
Rajya Sabha Leader Binoy Viswam
- S. V. Ghate
- M. Singaravelu
- K.N. Joglekar
- Hasrat Mohani
- Muzaffar Ahmed
- Ayodhya Prasad
Founded: 26 December 1925 (94 years ago) at Cawnpore, United Province, British Raj (presently Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India)
Headquarters: Ajoy Bhavan, 15, Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi, India-110002
Student Wing: All India Students Federation
Youth Wing: All India Youth Federation
Women's Wing: National Federation of Indian Women
- All India Trade Union Congress
- Bharatiya Khet Mazdoor Union
Peasant's Wing: All India Kisan Sabha
- Ideology Communism
Political Position: Left-wing
International Affiliation: International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
ECI Status: National Party
- Democratic Progressive Alliance (Tamil Nadu)
- Left Front, Tripura (Tripura)
- Left Front, West Bengal (West Bengal)
- Left Democratic Front, Kerala (Kerala)
- Left Democratic Front, Maharashtra (Maharashtra)
- Left Democratic Manch (Assam)
- Punjab Democratic Alliance (Punjab)
Seats in Lok Sabha: 2 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha: 1 / 245
History of Communist Party of India:
The Communist Party of India has officially stated that it was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur, then Cawnpore. S.V. Ghate was the first General Secretary of CPI.
But as per the version of CPI (M), the Communist Party of India was founded in Tashkent, Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 17 October 1920, soon after the Second Congress of the Communist International.
The founding members of the party were M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy (Roy's wife), Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof (Abani's wife), Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Hasrat Mohani, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M.P.T. Aacharya, and Sultan Ahmed Khan Tarin of North-West Frontier Province.
The CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of. contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal. Small communist groups were formed in Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed), Bombay (led by S.A. Dange), Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani) and Punjab and Sindh (led by Ghulam Hussain). However, only Usmani became a CPI party member
CPI was recognized by the Election Commission of India as a 'National Party'. To date, CPI happens to be the only national political party from India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol.
Owing to a massive defeat in 2019 Indian general election where the party saw its tally reduce to 2 MP, the Election Commission of India has sent a letter to CPI asking for reasons why its national party status should not be revoked.
If similar performance is repeated in the next election, the CPI will no longer be a national party.
On the national level they supported the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government along with other parliamentary Left parties, but without taking part in it.
Upon attaining power in May 2004, the United Progressive Alliance formulated a programme of action known as the Common Minimum Programme.
The Left bases its support to the UPA on strict adherence to it. Provisions of the CMP mentioned to discontinue disinvestment, massive social sector outlays and an independent foreign policy.
On 8 July 2008, the General Secretary of CPI(M), Prakash Karat, announced that the Left was withdrawing its support over the decision by the government to go ahead with the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act.
The Left parties combination had been a staunch advocate of not proceeding with this deal citing national interests.
In West Bengal it participates in the Left Front. It also participated in the state government in Manipur.
In Kerala the party is part of Left Democratic Front. In Tripura the party is a partner of the Left Front, which governed the state till 2018.
In Tamil Nadu it is part of the Progressive Democratic Alliance. It is involved in the Left Democratic Front in Maharashtra
The current general secretary of CPI is D. Raja.
Lok Sabha Election Tally:
|Lok Sabha||Year||Lok Sabha
|Seventh||1980||529 ( 542* )||47||10||2.49%|