The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada) abbreviated as CSIR was established by the Government of India in September 1942 as an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India .
As of 2013, it runs 38 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers and 5 units throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 14,000, including a total of 4600 scientists and 8000 technical and support personnel.
Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.
Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of DST took additional charge as director general of CSIR, with effect from August 24, 2018. Since 18 October 2018, Shekhar C. Mande is the Director General of CSIR-cum-Secretary DSIR
In terms of Intellectual property, CSIR has 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents in force in India.
CSIR is granted more than 14000 patents worldwide since its inception. CSIR is awarded the National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in the category “Top R&D Institution / Organization for Patents and Commercialization” by Indian Patent Office.
In late 2007, the Minister of Science and Technology, Kapil Sibal stated, in a Question Hour session of the Parliament, that CSIR has developed 1,376 technologies/knowledgebase during the last decade of the 20th century.
Key Description of CSIR:
Founder(s): Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar and Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
Established: 26 September 1942
President: Prime Minister of India
Director General: Shekhar C. Mande
Budget: 3098 Crore as of 2013
Subsidiaries: 38 laboratories, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers
Location: Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi-110 001.
Social Network: Twitter
History of CSIR:
In the 1930s, the need for establishing research organisations for the development of natural resources and new industries in India began to emerge. Eminent citizens such as C. V. Raman, Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell and J. C. Ghosh had proposed the creation of an advisory board of scientific research.
Sir Richard Gregory, then editor of Nature, was among the first people who officially reported to the British Government.
After visiting scientific departments and universities in India in 1933, Gregory submitted to Samuel Hoare, Secretary of State for India, regarding the need of scientific organisation similar to the DSIR in Britain.
Indian scientists at Calcutta and Bangalore initiated schemes to launch a National Institute of Sciences and an Indian Academy of Sciences, respectively.
At the Fifth Industries Conference in 1933, the Provincial Governments of Bombay, Madras, Bihar and Orissa unanimously reiterated their demand for a co-ordinating forum for industrial research. Hoare advised the Viceroy, Lord Willingdon, to support the demand. However, in May 1934, Willingdon replied to Hoare saying, "The creation of a Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in India to promote the application of research to natural resources does not appear to be necessary." While the Indian DSIR was rejected, the colonial government provided a small concession.
It instead offered to create an Industrial Intelligence and Research Bureau, which came into operation in April 1935 under the Indian Stores Department.
The Bureau's limited resources (with a budget of INR 1.0 lakh per annum) made it impossible to initiate major research and industrial activities as had been hoped for; it was mainly concerned with testing and quality control.
Then the constitution of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) as an autonomous body was prepared under Mudaliar and Bhatnagar. Thus, CSIR came into operation on 26 September 1942.
The BSIR and IRUC were incorporated into the advisory bodies to the governing body of the CSIR. In 1943 the governing body of CSIR approved the proposal of Bhatnagar, though the initiative of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, to establish five national laboratories — the National Chemical Laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory, the Fuel Research Station, the Glass & Ceramics Research Institute and the National Metallurgical Laboratory.
In 1944 in addition to its annual budget of INR 1 million, CSIR received a grant of INR 10 million for the establishment of these laboratories.
The Tata Industrial House donated INR 2 million for the chemical, metallurgical and fuel research laboratories. The foundation for the Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute at Kolkata was the first to be laid, in December 1945; National Metallurgical Laboratory at Jamshedpur in November 1946; and that for the National Chemical Laboratory at Pune was the last, on 6 April 1947, four months before India became independent. All the five establishments were completed by 1950.
President : Prime Minister (Ex-Officio)
Vice President : Minister of Science & Technology, India (Ex-Officio)
Governing Body : The Director General is the head of the governing body. The other ex-officio member is the finance secretary (expenditures). Other members' terms are three years.
CSIR Advisory Board : 15-member body composed of prominent members from respective fields of science and technology. Its function is to provide S&T inputs to the governing body. Member terms are three years.
- Developed India's first synthetic drug, methaqualone in 1950.
- Developed Optical Glass at CGCRI for defence purposes.
- Developed first Indian tractor Swaraj in 1967 completely based on indigenous know-how.
- Achieved the first breakthrough of flowering of Bamboo within weeks as against twenty years in nature.
- First to analyse genetic diversity of the indigenous Andamanese tribes and to establish their origin out of Africa 60,000 years ago.
- Developed the first transgenic Drosophila model for drug screening for cancer in humans.
- Invented, once a week non-steroidal family planning pill Saheli and non-steroidal herbal pill for asthma called Asmon.
- Designed India's first ever parallel processing computer, Flosolver.
- Rejuvenated India's one-hundred-year-old refinery at Digboi using the most modern molecular distillation technology.
- With TCS, developed a versatile portable PC-based software 'Bio-Suite' for bioinformatics.
- Design of 14 seater plane 'SARAS'.
- Established first ever in the world 'Traditional Knowledge Digital Library' accessible in five international languages, English, German, French, Japanese and Spanish.
- Successfully challenged the grant of patent in the US for use of haldi (turmeric) for wound healing and neem as insecticide.
- In 2007, under the NMITLI program, began the study of Sepsivac, a drug for gram-negative sepsis.
- In 2009, completed the sequencing of the Human Genome.
- In 2011, successfully tested India's 1st indigenous civilian aircraft, NAL
- NM5 made in association with National Aerospace Laboratories and Mahindra Aerospace.
- In 2020, initiated clinical trials to evaluate Sepsivac's efficacy to reduce mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology
The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize was established by CSIR in 1958. The prize is named after the Founder Director Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.
The nominees for the award are filtered out from the research categories of - Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Earth Sciences, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary, Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Medical Sciences & Physical Sciences.
The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize comes up with a Citation, a Plaque & a Cash Award of 5 Lakh Rupees with the addition of a stipend of 15,000/- per month (till the age of 65).
Every year, the Award Selection Committee of CSIR presents the award to maximum 2 individuals from each research category. As per the stats, the SSB Prize has been awarded to 525 individuals for their exemplary work in Science & Technology.
The candidates must be:
- Indian Nationality
- Overseas citizen of India (OCI) and Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) working in India
- The awardee must have made conspicuously important and outstanding contributions to human knowledge and progress – fundamental and applied – in the field of endeavor, which is his/her specialization.
- Upper Age Limit – 45 years.
The above criteria help CSIR Committee to select the eligible candidates for the award but the selection will be based on the results of selection procedure which is conducted by the Advisory Committee of CSIR.
Research laboratories under CSIR
|AMPRI - Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute||Madhya Pradesh||Bhopal|
|C-MMACS - CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation||Karnataka||Bengaluru|
|CBRI - CSIR-Central Building Research Institute||Uttaranchal||Roorkee|
|CCMB- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology||Telangana||Hyderabad|
|CDRI - Central Drug Research Institute||Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow|
|CECRI- Central Electro Chemical Research Institute||Tamil Nadu||Karaikudi|
|CEERI - Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute||Rajasthan||Pilani|
|CFTRI - Central Food Technological Research Institute||Karnataka||Mysore|
|CGCRI - Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute||West Bengal||Kolkata|
|CIMAP - Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants||Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow|
|CIMFR - Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research||Jharkhand||Dhanbad|
|CLRI - Central Leather Research Institute||Tamil Nadu||Chennai|
|CMERI - Central mechanical engineering research institute||West Bengal||Durgapur|
|CRRI - Central Road Research Institute||Delhi||New Delhi|
|CSIO - Central Scientific Instruments Organisation||Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|CSMCRI - Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute||Gujarat||Bhavnagar|
|IGIB - Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology||Delhi||Delhi|
|IHBT - Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology||Himachal Pradesh||Palampur|
|IICB - Indian Institute of Chemical Biology||West Bengal||Kolkata|
|IICT - Indian Institute of Chemical Technology||Telangana||Hyderabad|
|IIIM, Jammu - Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine||Jammu||Jammu|
|IIP - Indian Institute of Petroleum||Uttaranchal||Dehradun|
|IMMT - Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology||Odisha||Bhubaneswar|
|IMTECH - Institute of Microbial Technology||Chandigarh||Chandigarh|
|IITR - Indian Institute of Toxicology Research||Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow|
|NAL - National Aerospace Laboratories||Karnataka||Bengaluru|
|NBRI - National Botanical Research Institute||Uttar Pradesh||Lucknow|
|NCL - National Chemical Laboratory||Maharashtra||Pune|
|NEERI - National Environmental Engineering Research Institute||Maharashtra||Nagpur|
|NEIST (RRL), Jorhat - North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat||Assam||Jorhat|
|NGRI - National Geophysical Research Institute||Telangana||Hyderabad|
|NIIST - National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology||Kerala||Thiruvananthapuram|
|NIO - National Institute of Oceanography||Goa||Dona Paula|
|NISCAIR - National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources||Delhi||New Delhi|
|NISTADS - National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies||Delhi||New Delhi|
|NML - National Metallurgical Laboratory||Jharkhand||Jamshedpur|
|NPL - National Physical Laboratory||Delhi||New Delhi|
|OSDD - Open Source Drug Discovery|
|SERC, M - Structural Engineering Research Centre||Tamil Nadu||Chennai|
|URDIP Unit for Research and Development of Information Products||Maharashtra||Pune|